L’évolution géomorphologique des systèmes torrentiels proglaciaires de la vallée de Chamonix-Mont-Blanc, une approche du couplage sédimentaire de la fin du Petit Age Glaciaire au désenglacement récent

Abstract : Since the end of Little Ice Age, glaciers of the Mont blanc massif are retreating and large sediment volume are releasing from the ice. Thus, sediment supply, which is a main control factor of the proglacial stream geomorphic activity, could be deeply modified. Therefore, the consequences on the sediment fluxes and the risk management need to be understanding because of the present acceleration of glacier retreat and urban sprawl in the Chamonix valley. The goal of this thesis is to study the sediment coupling between stream systems and areas released by glaciers. A first approach allows understanding the geomorphic trajectory of proglacial system at the Chamonix scale since the end of the Little Ice Age. Our results supported by modelling and archives analyses, show the decreasing capacity of the hydrographic pattern to be connected with sediment sources. The second approach is lead on the LiDAR DEM multi-temporal comparison. It focuses on the three main proglacial systems: Argentière, Mer de Glace and Bossons, whom occurred a decennal flood during the 2014 summer. This part of our study underlines the storage efficiency into deglaciated areas and the increasing role of anthropic forcing. Present sediment yield to proglacial stream is leaded by facilities such as the Mont Blanc Tunnel substructure or the subglacial harnessing. Our results show that the decreasing geomorphic activity of proglacial stream in the Chamonix valley is mainly caused by glacier retreat from the early 18th Century to the middle 20th century, then it is leaded by the increasing human pressure. Nevertheless, the fall of stream activity is punctuated by extreme events, such as the 1920 flood in the Arveyron of the Mer de Glace that we reconstructed the geomorphic consequences. Despite their intensity, effects of that king of events are limited close to the glacier downstream. Contrary to our initial hypotheses, glacier retreat in the Chamonix Valley, is not follow by a geomorphic crisis of proglacial streams because of the disconnectivity between sediment released from the ice and stream systems.
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Johan Berthet. L’évolution géomorphologique des systèmes torrentiels proglaciaires de la vallée de Chamonix-Mont-Blanc, une approche du couplage sédimentaire de la fin du Petit Age Glaciaire au désenglacement récent. Géographie. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016GREAA009⟩. ⟨tel-01412350⟩

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