L'enseignement de savoirs informatiques pour débutants, du second cycle de la scolarité secondaire scientifique à l'université en France : une étude comparative

Abstract : Our dissertation focuses on the teaching and learning of computer knowledge to beginners in France. It aims to understand how beginners implement and build computer knowledge. We used a qualitative methodology mobilizing ethnographic observations, questionnaire, semi-structured interviews and the analysis of official instructions and textbooks. We also conducted a comparative study of the practice of both school and university students, on the one hand, and teachers, on the other hand. Results show contrasting situations between secondary schools and university. In high school, algorithmic curricula exist within mathematic education. In this case, practice is influenced by four factors: motivation (related to representation), professional development for teachers, youth in business and pedagogical approach. The practice mainly focuses on a logical approach to algorithmic using work paper and pencil: programming is limited, and when it occurs, it is often with a calculator but rarely with the Algobox language. Among students, algorithms are perceived as a new domain in the mathematics programs, but different from both mathematics and informatics. Very good students in computing are generally good at math. Another elective course, specifically about informatics, has also been recently implemented for grade 12 students. It welcomes students of all profiles, but with different motivations, from the discovery of computers in a formal context to a shelter against other elective courses: their practices are manyfold. Within ISN, they discover computers through various forms of education and problems of increasing complexity. Teacher practice is influenced by their original education, with a lack of experience for non specialists teachers. At the University level, students show more advanced practice. They produce computer programs are often sophisticated and incorporate elements from various external sources. The mathematics knowledge invested by students is often modest. If students in lycée and university are all computer beginners, the differences in practice between them seem linked to the specific skills of teachers. In addition to teacher's training, motivation is fundamental to adhere to this teaching/learning and support practice, both for teachers and students.
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Claver Nijimbere. L'enseignement de savoirs informatiques pour débutants, du second cycle de la scolarité secondaire scientifique à l'université en France : une étude comparative. Education. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015USPCB086⟩. ⟨tel-01410094⟩

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