Microlentilles et micro-miroirs en cristal liquide cholestérique

Abstract : The molecular structure of a cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) is helical and gives rise to outstanding optical properties like the selective reflection of the light. Cholesteric structure raises fundamental questions such as the relationship between molecular chirality and mesoscopic chirality, and its impact on optical properties. It is omnipresent in biology (organisation of chitin, cellulose, collagen or chromatin). It is also used in technology: cosmetology, super-twisted nematic displays, reflective screens, temperature or pressure sensors, materials for photonic applications in general. The purpose of this work is to describe and understand the interaction of light with different types of non-monotonous helical structures elaborated in this thesis - synthetic cholesteric films (single-component or hybrid i.e. doped with gold nanoparticles) - or in a biological material (Chrysina gloriosa beetle). Several optical characterisation techniques have been used, depending on the sample to study and the questions which are rised. The main part of the manuscript is dedicated to cholesteric microlenses and micro-mirrors. We studied the cholesteric polygonal texture and highlighted that it acts as a chiral microlens array by using confocal microscopy coupled to spectrophotometry. These organic microlenses, developed in a two-step process by self-assembly, have the specificity of being wavelength-selective. We then showed that the polygonal texture of Chrysina gloriosa, as a biological analogous, is an array of spherical micro-mirrors and convergent microlenses. The second part of the manuscript is devoted to the elaboration of hybrid materials composed of CLC and gold nanoparticules and the study of their optical properties. Optical properties of these nanocomposites were probed using various techniques (plasmon resonance, Raman spectroscopy etc).
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Chloé Bayon. Microlentilles et micro-miroirs en cristal liquide cholestérique. Matière Condensée [cond-mat]. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015TOU30289⟩. ⟨tel-01407259⟩

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