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Epistémologie constitutive pour les sciences du vivant : sur la catégorie de causalité en biologie

Abstract : Teleology is a very relevant causal form in biology, but it raises a metaphysical problem because it seems to introduce some project in nature. Biologists generally attempt to find some theoretical instruments that allow to assimilate teleological explanation to efficient causation. This thesis addresses this problem through a transcendental approach, in a Kantian sense and is inspired by the neo-kantian interpretation of Marburg school. After a detailed explanation of the transcendental perspective adopted, it is proposed to solve the ambiguous status of teleological causation by taking into account the transcendental nature of causality in general. By showing the role of regulating principle of causation in general, and therefore also of efficient causality in physics, this work ascribes the status of a specific transcendental and a priori principle to teleology. Taking inspiration from the Kantian definition of teleology, but with a critical conceptual extension, teleology is interpreted as a principle that allows the determination of a specific order in biology. This specific type of order is coupled with the constitutive frame of extended criticality, which is the result of a conceptual extension from critical phenomena in physics to biological sciences.
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Contributor : Nicole Perret <>
Submitted on : Tuesday, November 29, 2016 - 11:02:20 AM
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Nicole Perret. Epistémologie constitutive pour les sciences du vivant : sur la catégorie de causalité en biologie. Philosophie. Ecole normale supérieure - ENS PARIS, 2013. Français. ⟨tel-01404728⟩

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