Contribution au développement et à la caractérisation d’applicateurs pour les études bioélectromagnétiques portant sur les ondes radiofréquences et les impulsions électriques nanosecondes de haute intensité

Abstract : In this thesis, we propose and study exposure systems to explore healthy and therapeutic biological effects of EM signals. We propose a microwave antenna for thermal ablation of liver tumors at 2.45 GHz. Its original feature consists in its reduced dimensions that permits the endoscopic insertion in the zone to be treated. For this antenna, a specific absorption rate (SAR) greater than 50 W/kg/W inc showed an exposed zone of 1-cm diameter. We propose a transverse electromagnetic cell (TEM) with an aperture sealed with a transparent conducting material Indium tin oxide (ITO).This TEM cell can be used to study the potential effects of wireless communication systems on biological cells. This delivery device allows real-time observation of biological cells during exposure across the aperture sealed with ITO. The effect of the aperture and the ITO layer presence on the SAR in the exposed sample was evaluated. The SAR values obtained at 1.8 GHz in the sample exposed in the TEM cell with the sealed or non-sealed aperture of 20-mm diameter were 1.1 W/kg/W inc and 23.6 W/kg/W inc, respectively. An excellent homogeneity of SAR was achieved in the medium in the presenceof ITO. Finally, we propose several devices for the exposure of biological medium to nanosecond pulsed electric field with high intensity (nsPEFs). The biological effect of nsPEFs are used in biotechnology and medicine. We propose two devices with electrodes in direct contact with the biological medium and three devices with isolated electrodes. We demonstrate their adaptation for 3-ns duration pulses and the suitability of those with electrodes in contactwith the biological medium to provide high intensities fields in the order of several MV/m. We demonstrate the importance of the isolated devices for delivering ultrashort pulses.
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Malak Soueid. Contribution au développement et à la caractérisation d’applicateurs pour les études bioélectromagnétiques portant sur les ondes radiofréquences et les impulsions électriques nanosecondes de haute intensité. Electromagnétisme. Université de Limoges, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LIMO0081⟩. ⟨tel-01403312⟩

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