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Etudes physiologiques et génétiques de caractères morpho-physico-chimiques des fruits d’agrumes au cours de la maturation jusqu’à l’abscission

Abstract : Fruit quality control is an agronomic, genetics and production research objective. The concept of quality is crucial for fruit produced for the fresh fruit market. In citrus, which are non-climacteric fruit, fruit quality traits in the tree is set to trigger the harvest time that must precede fruit abscission. However, this fruit drop is sometimes very close to the stage of maturity and therefore causes losses because of shorter time to ensure the harvest. This is usually observed in orange grown in Spain and Tunisia. Furthermore, the quality of a citrus fruit is often defined by the skin color, fruit size, lack of seeds, aroma and juice content, sugar and acidity. If seedlessness can be obtained by induced mutations or triploidy, the control of the change in other characters is based on many factors: variety, interaction with the rootstock, environmental impact and cultivation techniques. Among them, the varietal genotype, which means the genetic structure inherited from the parents, is a key factor to achieve the expected level of improvement in breeding. In citrus, obtaining a genetic structure adapted to production targets is not easy because the characteristics associated with reproduction such as polyembryony, juvenility or gamete self-incompatibility. In the present work, we aimed to develop knowledge on the variation of fruit quality traits by including abscission, heritability and traits inheritance to facilitate breeding programs and breeding.We first studied the variation of the abscission in several varieties of orange on 3 sites, Tunisia, Spain and Corsica. This study showed that for the same varieties, the process of abscission measured by investigating the decrease the fruit detachment force (FDF) required to separate the fruit from the calyx, was very dependent on the environment, but not on the fruit quality traits. Interestingly, Corsica does not seem favorable to the expression of this trait. Among the environmental factors described on the three locations, the increase of the number of days that favor growth (average temperature ≥ 13 °C) in late winter seems to be the cause of the sudden and massive fruit drop. Nevertheless, in Corsica, the FDF can also decrease during maturation in other citrus than oranges.The analysis of inheritance of fruit quality traits and abscission was achieved by investigating the segregation of QTLs in a population of 116 hybrids resulting from a backcross (clementine × mandarin), clementine being itself a hybrid (mandarin × orange). Analyzes were replicated two consecutive years at several maturity dates which were bounded by maturity dates of both parents. Most traits presented a significant variation and a transgressive inheritance arising from the high heterozygosity of parental genomes. Three genetic maps have been developed (parental and consensus) using SSR and SNP markers covering about 75% of the reference genome. After estimating the random effect on the variance of the traits (BLUP), QTLs of each trait were detected (1 QTL for acidity, citrate, juice content, TSS, FDF as well as 5 QTLs for the a* color index). Most of them were detected at a single date of maturation.Interannual and inter-population stability of these QTLs will be checked before any possible use of the linked markers in breeding programs.
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  • HAL Id : tel-01403283, version 1

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Hajer Khefifi. Etudes physiologiques et génétiques de caractères morpho-physico-chimiques des fruits d’agrumes au cours de la maturation jusqu’à l’abscission. Génétique des plantes. Montpellier SupAgro; Institut National Agronomique de Tunisie, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015NSAM0013⟩. ⟨tel-01403283⟩

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