Evaluation du risque d'inflammation de gaz imbrûlés au cours d'un incendie en milieu sous-ventilé.

Abstract : After the beginning of a fire in a closed room, the oxygen rate in the atmosphere decreases. This implies an incomplete combustion and unburnt gases production. These ones may accumulate in the room or in ventilation pipes, and, after mixing with fresh air, auto-ignite. This could trigger a thermal accident such as backdraft. This present work, conducted for AREVA, aims to analyse this hazard and provide some methods to predict and prevent it. First, a bibliographical research, was carried on to define a mixture’s auto-ignition parameters. This study was based on Frank-Kamenetskii’s model: after establishing the energetics balance between the heat produced by combustion, and the one consumed by conduction, an auto-ignition critical parameter, δC, was defined. It reunites the system’s geometry, temperature (or the room temperature) and composition.Then, the High Density Polythene degradation in a Controlled Atmosphere Cone Calorimeter was studied. The effect on the material’s degradation of under-ventilation and of the energy brought has been tested through the oxygen concentration in the atmosphere and the incident heat flux.During this work many different gas mixtures were analyzed. On the ground of δC formula, the final step was to set the volume, through the radius (characteristic size of the system), as an auto-ignition parameter. Making the concentration of each combustible varying between the LFL and UFL and imposing the temperature allowed to predict this hazard.
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Etienne Mathis. Evaluation du risque d'inflammation de gaz imbrûlés au cours d'un incendie en milieu sous-ventilé.. Autre. ISAE-ENSMA Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et d'Aérotechique - Poitiers, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016ESMA0012⟩. ⟨tel-01402417⟩

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