Mécanismes de la sélection de l'action et de la prise de décision dans les ganglions de la base : approche par un modèle connexionniste

Charlotte Héricé 1, 2, 3
1 Mnemosyne - Mnemonic Synergy
LaBRI - Laboratoire Bordelais de Recherche en Informatique, Inria Bordeaux - Sud-Ouest, IMN - Institut des Maladies Neurodégénératives [Bordeaux]
Abstract : The nervous system structures involved in decision making constitute a circuit formed by the basal ganglia, the cortex, the thalamus and their numerous interconnections. This circuit can be described as a set of loops operating in parallel and interacting at different points. The decisions and therefore the actions of an individual emerge from the interactions between these loops and the plasticity of their connections. These emerging behaviors and arising learning processes are addressed through a closed-loop approach in which the theoretical model is in constant interaction with the environment of the task. To this end, neural modeling and dedicated analysis software tools were developed in the laboratory. We explore here the dynamics of information flows within this circuit through a computational model described at the neuron and synapse level. Taking into account previous experimental observations from primates and earlier computational models, we incrementally developed a network capable of learning to perform behavioral tasks under several protocols and conditions. The result here is a computational model of learning and decision making in the basal ganglia that allows for the testing of experimental hypotheses and also to conduct in silico pathophysiological or pharmacological investigations at the cellular level. The development of this computational model was conducted in parallel with the development of an experimental protocol of decision making and with the adjustment of a model of Parkinson disease in the salamander (Pleurodeles waltlii).
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Charlotte Héricé. Mécanismes de la sélection de l'action et de la prise de décision dans les ganglions de la base : approche par un modèle connexionniste. Neurosciences [q-bio.NC]. Université de Bordeaux, 2016. Français. ⟨tel-01402128⟩

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