Diverse modules and zero-knowledge

Abstract : Smooth (or universal) projective hash functions were first introduced by Cramer and Shoup, at Eurocrypt'02, as a tool to construct efficient encryption schemes, indistinguishable under chosen-ciphertext attacks. Since then, they have found many other applications, including password-authenticated key exchange, oblivious transfer, blind signatures, and zero-knowledge arguments. They can be seen as implicit proofs of membership for certain languages. An important question is to characterize which languages they can handle.In this thesis, we make a step forward towards this goal, by introducing diverse modules. A diverse module is a representation of a language, as a submodule of a larger module, where a module is essentially a vector space over a ring. Any diverse module directly yields a smooth projective hash function for the corresponding language, and almost all the known smooth projective hash functions are constructed this way.Diverse modules are also valuable in their own right. Thanks to their algebraic structural properties, we show that they can be easily combined to provide new applications related to zero-knowledge notions, such as implicit zero-knowledge arguments (a lightweight alternative to non-interactive zero-knowledge arguments), and very efficient one-time simulation-sound (quasi-adaptive) non-interactive zero-knowledge arguments for linear languages over cyclic groups.
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Fabrice Ben Hamouda--Guichoux. Diverse modules and zero-knowledge. Cryptography and Security [cs.CR]. PSL Research University, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016PSLEE022⟩. ⟨tel-01399476v2⟩

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