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Integration des véhicules électriques dans les réseaux électriques : Modèles d’affaire et contraintes techniques pour constructeurs automobiles

Abstract : Electric vehicles (EVs) penetration has been rapidly increasing during the last few years. If not managed properly, the charging process of EVs could jeopardize electric grid operations. On the other hand, Grid Integrated Vehicles (GIVs), i.e. vehicles whose charging and discharging patterns are smartly controlled, could turn into valuable assets for the electrical grids as distributed storage units.In this thesis, GIVs are studied from a technical, regulatory, and economics perspectives. First, the general framework for a smart grid integration of EVs is reviewed: application areas and benchmark scenarios are described, the main actors are listed, and the most important challenges are analyzed.Then, the emphasis is put on system wide services, and more particularly on frequency control mechanisms. The regulatory conditions enabling the participation of GIV fleets to this service are studied based on an intensive survey of existing transmission system operator rules. Several economics and technical simulations are performed for various market designs.Then, local grid services are investigated. A representative eco-district is modeled, considering various consumption units and distributed generation. A local energy management system is proposed; it is responsible for controlling the charging / discharging patterns of the GIVs which are located in the district in order to mitigate the overloading conditions of the eco-district transformer. Economic consequences are derived from this technical analysis.At last, some experimental results are presented. They show the behavior of two GIVs, including one with bidirectional capabilities. The experimental proof of concepts confirm the theoretical abilities of GIVs: they are very fast responding units (even considering the complete required IT architecture) and are able to follow grid signals very accurately.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, November 9, 2016 - 12:20:26 PM
Last modification on : Sunday, June 26, 2022 - 5:23:52 AM
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Paul Codani. Integration des véhicules électriques dans les réseaux électriques : Modèles d’affaire et contraintes techniques pour constructeurs automobiles. Autre. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016SACLC073⟩. ⟨tel-01394385⟩



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