Etude expérimentale et numérique du développement d'un écoulement chaud vertical en milieu semi-confiné sous l'influence d'une ventilation mécanique. Application à une station de métropolitain

Abstract : Smoke spreading in an underground subway station is analyzed and studied by taking into account parameters such as passenger accesses and forced ventilation systems. Two sub-scale models are considered to arise such analysis ; based on the Froude number (Fr) or momentum ratio(r). The first experiment based on Froude number conservation is conducted on a 1/30e scale modelof a realistic subway station with fire provided from an air-butane burner. Due to restricted access to local temperature and velocity measurements, a second model was entirely developed during the course of this work ; the main issue is to study momentum ratio and thermal spreading. Numerical studies were in parallel carried out from an house-code LES turbulent model.Four main parameters were thus identified : tunnel/station height ratio (H/H0), ventilation massflowrate, number and position of accesses and hydraulic network in which the subway station islocated. « Critical » flowrate can be imposed in order to avoid thermal speading within the passenger accesses and consequently a critical factor was defined. The air/smoke flow is strongly linked to the number and position of accesses and also of the geometrical configuration. Two or three regimes can be identified. Finally internal flows in the accesses and in the station are also strongly influenced by the pressure drop of the hydraulic network.
Keywords : Smoke Spreading
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Bastien Giachetti. Etude expérimentale et numérique du développement d'un écoulement chaud vertical en milieu semi-confiné sous l'influence d'une ventilation mécanique. Application à une station de métropolitain. Autre. ISAE-ENSMA Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et d'Aérotechique - Poitiers, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015ESMA0003⟩. ⟨tel-01390196⟩

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