Waves in granular media : from microscopic scale to macroscopic scale.

Abstract : This thesis deals with the study of mechanical wave propagation in dry or wet granular media, with the aim of relating the phenomena at the microscopic scale (particles dynamics, interaction potentials between grains, rheology of the interstitial fluid) to the features at the macroscopic scale (dispersion relation, wave speed and attenuation in the long wavelength approximation). The systems under study are either large one-dimensional granular media, as the analogs of the paths of the most compressed grains (the force chains) in real granular packings, or the real granular media themselves. In a first place, we study experimentally the wave transmission through alignments of dry centimetric spheres, which we model via the Hertz potential. We show that the elasto-frictional coupling between the grains and a substrate (the spheres’ support) induces an on-site elastic potential, which in turn induces a band gap at zero frequency in the transfer function. In a second place, we show that the presence of an infinitesimal amount of viscous fluid at the contact between every particle induces an elasto-hydrodynamic (EHD) interaction. The later affects the attenuation of waves in addition to a significant increase of the wave speed, which in this case both non-trivially depend on the elasticity of the particles, on the viscosity of the fluid and on the frequency. In a third place, we check the reliability of our analysis to describe ultrasonic wave propagation in real granular materials such as dry or wet sand; our particles are here millimetric spheres. In the dry configuration, our results are consistent with an effective medium theory (EMT) which relies on the Hertz-Mindlin interaction in the long wavelength approximation. In the wet configuration, the EMT model combined with an EHD mechanism fairly reproduces our preliminary observations.
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Kamil Chrząszcz. Waves in granular media : from microscopic scale to macroscopic scale.. Other. Université Paris-Saclay, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016SACLC064⟩. ⟨tel-01387980⟩

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