Implantation ionique d'hydrogène et d'hélium à basse énergie dans le silicium monocristallin

Abstract : The high dose hydrogen ion implantation is used in the Smart Cut (tm) process to transfer relatively thick (i.e. >200 nm) Si layers from a donor substrate onto a host material. Hydrogen and helium co-implantation at low energies for a much lower total fluence opens the way for transferring extremely thinner (i.e. <50 nm) layers. However, the phenomena and the mechanisms responsible for the interaction, close to a wafer surface, between H, He, silicon interstitials and vacancies they generate remain poorly understood. First, we studied the effect of reducing the ion energies during both H and He implantations onto the formation and the development of blisters during annealing. Blisters were formed from the micro-cracks since a stiffener was not bonded to the implanted wafer. An approach, based on the comparison between experimentally obtained size characteristics of blisters with the finite element method simulations, allowed us to deduce the pressure inside blister cavities and the fraction of the implanted fluences used to pressurize them. We showed that even when implanted at very low energy, H and He atoms do not exo-diffuse out of the implanted region during annealing. We were able to identify, and then relate the efficiency of blister coalescence to a variation in the elastic energy of blisters as a function of their depth position. In a second part, we studied the role of the damage, produced by He and H coimplantation, on the formation and the thermal evolution of the microstructure of the implanted silicon. These investigations were realized as a function of either the order of co-implantation, or the nominal position of the He profile with respect to the H one, or the ratio between He and H fluences. We showed that the H depth distribution was never affected by He co-implantation. Helium was always trapped at the depth where the damage was maximum. When the damage was highest within the H profile, He diffused and was trapped there in the nano-bubbles and /or the blister cavities. However, when the damage was higher within the He profile than within the H one, He remained trapped in the nano-bubbles outside the H profile. Helium contained in the nano-bubbles, whatever their depth distribution, did not contribute to a pressurization of blister cavities that slowed down their coalescence. Finally, we have proposed various scenarios accounting for the similarities and the differences evidenced both before and after annealing at low or higher temperatures depending on the type of realized implantation.
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Nabil Daghbouj. Implantation ionique d'hydrogène et d'hélium à basse énergie dans le silicium monocristallin. Chimie-Physique [physics.chem-ph]. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016TOU30018⟩. ⟨tel-01386593⟩

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