Ecologie des chytrides parasites de la cyanobactérie Anabaena macrospora

Abstract : Face to both the important anthropogenic input in nutrients and the global change, numerous authors predict that the cyanobacterial blooms will increase in relative abundance in aquatic ecosystems. An exhaustive knowledge of the driving biotic factors of the cyanobacterial dynamic is essential. In lakes, the most common fungal parasites of phytoplankton belong to the phylum Chytridyomycota (i.e. chytrids). The aim of the thesis was to investigate the fungal parasitism associated to the cyanobacterial blooms, particularly the ecology of chytrids parasitizing the filamentous cyanobacterial species Anabaena macrospora, in Lake Aydat (France). During two successive years (2010-2011), investigations on (i) the chytrid cycle of life of two chytrid species parasitizing A. macrospora, (ii) the impact of the fungal parasitism on the cyanobacterial bloom dynamic and (iii) driving factors of the host-parasite pairings dynamics have been led during two spatio-temporal surveys using high resolution sampling strategies. Moreover (iv) a double staining method based on a combination of CFW and SYTOX green for counting, identifying, and investigating the fecundity of phytoplankton fungal parasites and the putative relationships established between hosts and their fungal parasites has been developed. Results underlined the coexistence of two chytrids, Rhizosiphon crassum and R. akinetum, which have similar life cycles but differed in their infective regimes depending on the cellular niches offered by their host. R. crassum infected both vegetative cells and akinetes while R. akinetum infected only akinetes. A reconstruction of the developmental stages suggested that the life cycle of R.crassum was completed in about 3 days. By infecting akinetes, R. akinetum could reduce or modify the genetic structure of the cyanobacterial bloom of the following year. Furthermore, chytrids may reduce the length of filaments of Anabaena macrospora significantly by ‘‘mechanistic fragmentation’’ following infection. All these results suggest that chytrid parasitism is one of the driving factors involved in the decline of cyanobacterial blooms, by direct mortality of parasitized cells and indirectly by the mechanistic fragmentation, which could weaken the resistance of A. macrospora to grazing. Moreover, we underlined that the production of zoospore depends on the nutritional host quantity (host size) and quality (host phytoplanktonic group, host metabolism...). The decrease of the cyanobacterial active biomass, mechanistic fragmentation, and production of zoospores which exhibit a high nutritional quality for the zooplankton, established the chytrids as a real link between the inedible filamentous cyanobacteria, considered as trophic dead ends, and the higher trophic levels. Overall, we consider that the acquisition of our data places the chytrid parasitism as an important driving factor of the phytoplankton dynamic, allowing the inclusion of fungi and their main function (parasitism) in the energy and matter fluxes in the pelagic ecosystems.
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Mélanie Gerphagnon. Ecologie des chytrides parasites de la cyanobactérie Anabaena macrospora. Sciences agricoles. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013CLF22385⟩. ⟨tel-01379598⟩

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