Cellules souches pluripotentes induites (iPSc) différenciées en motoneurones spinaux : vers des modèles cellulaires de neuropathies périphériques d'origine génétique

Abstract : Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSc) are a highly interesting tool to create and observe the behavior of specific and unattainable cells from a patient. Our team is interested in genetic peripheral nerves disorders and especially in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). One of our objectives is the development of motor neurons models from patients using the iPSc strategy in order to better understand the pathophysiology of GDAP1-related neuropathies. This gene was found in 1998 to be mutated in an axonal form of CMT and encodes a mitochondrial outer membrane protein, which function remains unclear. We first obtained dermal fibroblasts (DF) from skin biopsies of a healthy person and of a homozygous patient carrying GDAP1 non-sense mutation (p.Gln163*). Then, we reprogrammed DFs into iPSc using non-integrative plasmids (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and l-Myc). After amplification, all quality controls were performed to conclude that our iPSc had the same properties and capacities than embryonic stem cells and a normal karyotype. Finally, we optimized protocols to successfully differentiate these iPSc into rosettes (structures full of neural progenitors), then into neurons and finally into motor neurons for control and GDAP1 patients. The first differences between control and patient cells were observed during the rosette formation, where a lot of patient cells were full of lipid droplets, and the rosette proportion was lower than the control cells. Mitochondria morphology was totally different in motor neurons between control and patient, where mitochondria had the same morphology than the mitochondria observed in patient nerve biopsies (round and accumulated). In order to reduce the time of differentiation, a cell sorting method was used (SdFFF). It allowed us to sort different progenitors (neural / endothelial). Generation of motor neurons using axonal CMT-patient-derived iPSc was a first crucial step to better understand the role of GDAP1 in this pathology. This cellular model of CMT4A should ultimately allow us to perform preclinical drug screening in order to identify candidate pharmacological treatments for CMT patients.
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Pierre-Antoine Faye. Cellules souches pluripotentes induites (iPSc) différenciées en motoneurones spinaux : vers des modèles cellulaires de neuropathies périphériques d'origine génétique. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Limoges, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LIMO0051⟩. ⟨tel-01376942⟩

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