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Theses

Conception et prototypage d'un système complet pour la surveillance du grain dans les silos de stockage

Abstract : This thesis deals with new monitoring technologies applied to grain storage in silos. Since the first sedentary groups, cereals have been accounted as the main food for humans, as well as for livestock. The crops are seasonal and storage is a vital necessity for the world population, which currently has 7.2 billion inhabitants and will reach 9 billion in 2050. In this problematic around monitoring of silos, insects represent the first grain postharvest pest, causing considerable losses in some cases up to 10% of the production. Several techniques and methods have been developed and implemented in order to face the danger of these pests. The most common method is the use of synthetic chemical insecticides, which have an obvious negative effect on both, human health and the environment. This work is part of a cooperative program named ECOSILO, whose main objective is to design and create prototype ecological alternatives to the systematic and massive use of insecticides. This is therefore a largely multidisciplinary approach, in which we were in charge to conceptualize a comprehensive monitoring system to detect infestations early and automatically control of the attractive and insecticides spreading. Our proposal is based on logic of IPM and focuses on the prevention and early detection of possible infestations, in order to preserve stocks and to avoid reaching high level of economic loss. Its fundamental originality lies in the proposition of a predictive model of the development of the infestation, which consists of coupling a thermal model of the silo with a biological model describing insect growth. Thus, it is possible, with additional weather data support, to anticipate the development of insects and initiate preventive alarms. This solution is accompanied by more specific electronic and computer monitoring developments in silos: a detection system at the entrance of silos; a supervision of the top of the heap of grain which is the hottest; Monitoring of the heap of grain in its entire height. These developments are implementing multiple detection modes (temperature, humidity, acoustic probe, CO2). All these technical contributions are incorporated in the form of a comprehensive monitoring system with a user interface that meets the requirements of the overall project ECOSILO. The functional checks have been performed in laboratory and actual site. We conclude on the perspectives opened by this work.
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Submitted on : Thursday, January 24, 2019 - 3:43:27 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, March 5, 2020 - 4:43:47 AM

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  • HAL Id : tel-01376036, version 2

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Fehd Bettahar. Conception et prototypage d'un système complet pour la surveillance du grain dans les silos de stockage. Electronique. Université Toulouse le Mirail - Toulouse II, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016TOU20027⟩. ⟨tel-01376036v2⟩

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