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Réticulation enzymatique des protéines de pois pour la formation de microparticules : application à l'encapsulation de la riboflavine

Abstract : In this work, pea proteins behavior toward enzymatic gelation by microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) was studied at native state and after denaturation (chemical reduction or thermal denaturation). The final application was the formation of protein microparticules to encapsulate riboflavin, chosen as hydrophilic active molecule model. The extraction process of the pea protein fractions has been optimized in such a way to minimize as possible protein denaturation and recover native fractions rich in albumin (Alb) and globulin (Glob) or a mixture of both.The setting up of the enzymatic reaction monitoring methods has brought out their complementarity as well as their limits. Two new monitoring methods of enzymatic cross-linking reaction have been developed. The first one, based on the NMR, allows to the simultaneous determination of the glutamine-lysine isopeptide bond, product of the enzymatic reaction, and the degree of crosslinking; the second method, based on size measuring techniques (SDS-PAGE and DLS), permit to view the intramolecular links. The study of enzymatic treatment applied to pea Alb and Glob at the native and denatured states, as well as thier native mixture showed that the enzymatic reaction is strongly related to the structure and conformation of proteins. Unlike Alb, the Glob fraction is a good substrate to transglutaminase and crosslinking reaction involves different subunits constituting globulins for each treatment condition. However, the Alb can be used as a booster of enzyme reaction which can be an innovative way for improving the proteins susceptibility toward transglutaminase treatment. The mechanism seems to be based on a selective affinity phenomenon. The good mechanical properties and water holding capacity of total pea proteins gel have been exploited to produce microparticles from a water-in-oil emulsion followed by enzymatic gelation. The produced microparticles were practically insoluble in gastrointestinal media in the absence of enzymes and slowly degradable in the presence of enzymes. The release mechanisms of riboflavin in digestive environments are governed by a diffusion phenomenon in the absence of enzymes and by support degradation phenomenon in the presence of enzymes according to kinetics compatible with nutraceutical applications.
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Attaf Djoullah. Réticulation enzymatique des protéines de pois pour la formation de microparticules : application à l'encapsulation de la riboflavine. Alimentation et Nutrition. Université de Bourgogne, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015DIJOS072⟩. ⟨tel-01375883⟩

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