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Theses

Change detection from mobile laser scanning point clouds

Abstract : Mobile mapping systems are increasingly used for street environment mapping, especially mobile laser scanning technology enables precise street mapping, scene understanding, facade modelling, etc. In this research, the change detection from laser scanning point clouds is investigated. First of all, street environment change detection using RIEGL data is studied for the purpose of database updating and temporary object identification. An occupancy-based method is presented to overcome the challenges encountered by the conventional distance-based method, such as occlusion, anisotropic sampling. Occluded areas are identified by modelling the occupancy states within the laser scanning range. The gaps between points and scan lines are interpolated under the sensor reference framework, where the sampling density is isotropic. Even there are some conflicts on penetrable objects, e.g. trees, fences, the occupancy-based method is able to enhance the point-to-triangle distance-based method. The change detection method is also applied to data acquired by different laser scanners at different temporal-scales with the intention to have wider range of applications. The local sensor reference framework is adapted to Velodyne laser scanning geometry. The occupancy-based method is implemented to detection moving objects. Since the method detects the change of each point, moving objects are detect at point level. As the Velodyne scanner constantly scans the surroundings, the trajectories of moving objects can be detected. A simultaneous detection and tracking algorithm is proposed to recover the pedestrian trajectories in order to accurately estimate the traffic flow of pedestrian in public places. Changes can be detected not only at point level, but also at object level. The changes of cars parking on street sides at different times are detected to help regulate on-street car parking since the parking duration is limited. In this case, cars are detected in the first place, then they are compared with corresponding ones. Apart from car changes, parking positions and car types are also important information for parking management. All the processes are solved in a supervised learning framework. Furthermore, a model-based car reconstruction method is proposed to precisely locate cars. The model parameters are also treated as car features for better decision making. Moreover, the geometrically accurate models can be used for visualization purposes. Under the theme of change detection, related topics, e.g. tracking, classification, modelling, are also studied for the reason of practical applications. More importantly, the change detection methods are applied to different data acquisition geometries at multiple temporal-scales. Both bottom-up (point-based) and top-down (object-based) change detection strategies are investigated
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Wen Xiao. Change detection from mobile laser scanning point clouds. General Mathematics [math.GM]. Université Paris-Est, 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015PESC1125⟩. ⟨tel-01373359⟩

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