Métrologie par photogrammétrie aéroportée légère : application au suivi d'évolution de digues

Abstract : By embarking a good quality consumer grade camera on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) or on an ultralight system, it is possible to create – fully automatically – 3D models that are visually ''perfect'', or at least sufficient for visual or communication purposes. However, the accuracy of these methods is still a concern, especially if the resulting models are to be used as measuring tools. Linear acquisitions – also known as corridor mapping – are a striking example of the uncontrolled error propagation. A bowl effect is often observed, requiring multiple ground measurements to be overcome. These effects restrict the interest of such acquisitions. They are a challenge for the photogrammetrists community, the emerging civil UAV market, as well as many industrials interested in systems able to monitor ground deformations with an accuracy within a few millimeters (railway network surveillance, erosion of agricultural land, embankments monitoring,…).This thesis is an applied research project, led with a river concessionary which has the responsibility to maintain and keep under surveillance its containment dykes network. The purpose is to use light aerial systems as a mean for a monitoring system which is faster, cheaper, and more detailed than the topometric solutions used so far. First of all, we present a comparative study to understand, between UAVs and ultralight system, which tool is the most adapted for a specific need. We propose refined acquisition procedures, than can be used to limit operationally the drifts. In a second phase, we identify the internal camera model as the weak link, and propose a three steps auto-calibration procedure. Our tests led on linear acquisitions demonstrate that the external orientations accuracy are noticeably improved (from decimetric or even metric disparities, reduced to a few centimeters or less). In a third part, we propose an optimization of the adjustment on the ground control points, which is a way to limit the amount of ground measurements necessary. Finally, we present methods to control 3D models uncertainty, and through a diachronic analysis, examples of how such data can be used to monitor such structures through time
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Vincent Tournadre. Métrologie par photogrammétrie aéroportée légère : application au suivi d'évolution de digues. Traitement des images [eess.IV]. Université Paris-Est, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PESC1131⟩. ⟨tel-01373128⟩

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