Rôle du phlogopite sur la genèse de magmas riches en potassium : approche expérimentale

Abstract : K2O-rich melts (K2O > 2 wt. %; K2O/Na2O > 1) have been described in all of the major geodynamic settings on Earth. These melts are mainly characterized by their huge K2O content, ranging between 2 – 13 wt. % and K2O/Na 2 O ratios of 1 – 40. The chemical compositions of the different K2O-rich melt groups span a very high variability, from strongly silica undersaturated melts (kamfugites, kimberlites, madupitic lamproites) to silica-rich terms (shoshonites, phlogopite lamproites). These very high K2O contents together with strong K2O/Na2O ratios cannot be derived from partial melting of fertile or depleted peridotites. Partial melting experiments have been conducted in piston cylinder apparatus on phlogopite ± amphibole-peridotite in the spinel and garnet stability fields (1 – 3 GPa) in order to determine the ability of the lithospheric mantle to produce K2O-rich melts. The presence of small amounts of fluorine in the starting material leads to stabilize phlogopite at higher temperatures than previously determined. The first degrees of melting at 1 GPa are silica-rich and their K2O contents are buffered to 4 – 6 wt. % in the presence of residual phlogopite, depending on the source fertility (lherzolite and harzburgite, respectively). In the garnet stability field at 3 GPa, low-degree melts are silica-undersaturated but are enriched in K2O, compared to the garnet stability field: from 6 to 8 wt. % in lherzolite and harzburgite sources, respectively. These results suggest that pressure is a key parameter in the mantle to produce K2O-rich melts. Partition coefficient modelings show that increasing the phlogopite proportion in the mantle source does not modify the K2O content of derived melts, but decreases their K2O/Na2O ratios. Consequently, partial melting of phlogopite-peridotite in this range of pressure cannot accounts for the highest K2O contents observed in natural lamproites and kamafugites. A series of experiments has been realized on pure phlogopite at 1 and 3 GPa, showing that derived melts are strongly enriched in K2O (12 – 14 wt. %) and share chemical affinities with lamproites. Peridotite or pyroxenite melting in the presence of phlogopite, however, do not permit to reproduce the high chemical variability of natural K2O-rich melts requires volatile-rich conditions (H2O, CO2, F) and reduced oxygen fugacities.
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Pierre Condamine. Rôle du phlogopite sur la genèse de magmas riches en potassium : approche expérimentale. Sciences de la Terre. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015CLF22596⟩. ⟨tel-01368051⟩

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