Diagnostic de défauts d'isolement dans des lignes de transmission électriques : application aux cables de signalisation SNCF

Abstract : This thesis work focuses on the detection of insulation faults in very long transmission lines. This is detecting soft defects related to the insulation between the conductors of a long cable which are represented by the leakage conductance parameter. Detect these faults, signs of a possible future short-circuit, is an important issue but requires a noninvasive method. For example, in the case of railway signaling cables, it is to develop a method of diagnosis of very low leakage conductances in signaling cables along railways compatible with the movement of trains. Be aware estimate from measurements in one point of the cable, strong resistance distributed over several hundred meters without disturbing the continuous frequency range to 40 kHz, reserved for service signals. Indeed, the signal cables from the train that interest us have an average length 1500 m and are used in the frequency band 0-40 kHz.We propose so a frequency method for estimating low defects to medium frequency in uniform transmission lines with losses. It is based on two main ideas : a detailed analysis of joint effects of dissipation and dispersion and a method of comparing two lines having the same characteristics and differing only leak conductance parameter. This method of comparison was widespread in the case of multiconductor lines by adopting a statistical approach.This thesis has brought new results : losses estimation formulas resulting from the detailed analysis of a share of joint effects of dissipation and dispersion and also the method of comparing two lines. Numerical simulations were made in both cases to validate the proposed frequency method. Experiments were performed to validate the statistical analysis in the case of multiconductor lines.
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Leila Djaziri. Diagnostic de défauts d'isolement dans des lignes de transmission électriques : application aux cables de signalisation SNCF. Physique mathématique [math-ph]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PA112134⟩. ⟨tel-01367358⟩

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