Matières premières argileuses du Sénégal : caractéristiques et applications aux produits céramiques de grande diffusion

Abstract : The aim of this study is to explore the possibility of using three clays for the local ceramic industry in Senegal. We used a red clay (NM) and two gray clays (MN1) and (MN 2) from the region of Ziguinchor in Nema and Tambacounda in Niani Maleme, respectively. The study of the physicochemical characteristics of clays indicates that the chemical and mineralogicalcompositions contain the presence of quartz, kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite and goethite. Their structural characteristics and their surface areas are similar. Their mineralogical characteristics lead to a classification in groups of Kaolino-illite clays or Kaolino-smectite. By thermal analysis, typical phase transformation temperatures were well identified. The shaping by uniaxial pressing of moistened and granulated powders of clays was optimized. The properties in use of the sintered products were measured indicating that the mechanical properties are limited, although cristobalite and mullite constitute the major mineral phases in microstructures. Porosity was measured after sintering at different temperatures (1000°C, 1100°C and 1200°C), ranging from 25% to 30% and with a little lowering with increasing the sintering temperature. Overall,results indicate that these clays do not attain satisfactory characteristics for the production of bricks. To improve the mechanical properties, an organic eco-sustainable substance, the Cola Cordifolia, has been added to clays. This additive induces a 28% increase of the mechanical strength of the red clay (NM) after firing at 1000°C, reaching the minimum value of the standard for bricks. Finally, other areas for improvement of properties in use were explored such as the addition of urea and potassium or sodium fluxes. These additions have helped the increase of densification of clay materials for the production of bricks.
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Marthe Tatiana Diatta. Matières premières argileuses du Sénégal : caractéristiques et applications aux produits céramiques de grande diffusion. Matériaux. Université de Limoges, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LIMO0026⟩. ⟨tel-01364772⟩

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