Approche mécanique de l'adhésion cellulaire, ouverture au diagnostic

Abstract : Cell ability to sense mechanical properties of their microenvironment is crucial for tissue homeostasis which means their capacity to maintain mechanical integrity as they are submitted to external forces.Integrins have been highlighted as mechanotransducers able to form micro-scale structures called focal adhesion sites which mechanically link cells to the extracellular matrix by recruiting various adaptors. Both b1 and b3 integrins have been identified as the principal actors of tensional homeostasis. However as the resulting mechanotransduction processes are intrinsically dynamic, the respective and cooperative roles b1 and b3 integrins need to be addressed over time and space.In the present work, coupling time-resolved traction force microscopy and genetics approaches, we investigated the respective role of b1 and b3 integrins in active force generation at the single cell level. Our findings show that b1 integrins has an essential role in generation of cellular traction forces, b1 integrin-generated force is negatively regulated by b3 integrins which impacts the redistribution of b1 integrin containing adhesion through its ability to bind to talin and kindlin, b3 integrin supports min-scale temporal regulation of cellular contractile activity generated by b1 integrin. Finally, cell mechanical equilibrium relies on the ability of cells to maintain a fixed contractile moment.I also participated in two others studies in the framework of collaborations in which I used the traction force microscopy as a diagnostic tool to observe the effect of contractile forces in the formation of the aortic lumen and the formation of proplatelets. I was able to confirm that the protein amotL2 connecting the contractile fibers to VE-cadherin, is involved in intercellular forces necessary for the formation of the aortic lumen. And in a second collaboration, where I found by using traction force microscopy that the contractility of megakaryocytes via its actomyosin system, is necessary for the formation proplatelets.
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Rachel Milloud. Approche mécanique de l'adhésion cellulaire, ouverture au diagnostic. Physique [physics]. Université de Grenoble, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014GRENY034⟩. ⟨tel-01363672⟩

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