Induction de réponses mémoires lymphocytaires T CD8 et protection vaccinale après transfert de gènes par le vecteur AAV recombinant

Abstract : Immunological memory is the fundamental biological mechanism at the beginning of the development of vaccination. Understanding this mechanism and its interactions with the various players of the immune system has allowed the development of vaccines that are today the most effective barrier against the emergence of life-threatening infectious diseases. Route of injection and the nature of carriers of these vaccines are key parameters to be taken into consideration because they define a modulation of immune responses and their specific features. Nowadays, only the intramuscular injection route remains the major route of vaccines injection in the context of primary prophylaxis in human health. During our study, we were interested in comparing the injection of antigen (ovalbumin) following two routes of administration: intramuscular and intradermal routes. We also relied on a technology in the laboratory that involves the transfer of genes by rAAV2/1 vectors. We had two constructs of these vectors having specificity to target skeletal muscle cells and allowing us to provide a helper effect from CD4+ T cells during injections into female mice recipients. Moreover, one of these constructs enabled us to avoid the direct presentation of antigens by dendritic cells (DCs) to CD8+ T cells. The capacity of modulation of these vectors allowed us to show for the first time that the rAAV2/1 vector was able to trigger the expression of a transgene in the skin, and there to generate a strong cellular response. We have also shown that CD4+ T cell help and the intradermal route of immunization synergize to improve greatly cellular responses from the cross-presentation of antigens. Finally, we have demonstrated that CD8+ T cells generated following this synergism exhibited a phenotypic profile of polyfunctional memory cells and able to protect the host against a pathogenic challenge.
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Alexandre Ghenassia. Induction de réponses mémoires lymphocytaires T CD8 et protection vaccinale après transfert de gènes par le vecteur AAV recombinant. Immunologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015USPCB028⟩. ⟨tel-01362956⟩

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