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Universal Adelic Groups for Imaginary Quadratic Number Fields and Elliptic Curves

Abstract : The present thesis focuses on two questions that are not obviously related. Namely,(1)What does the absolute abelian Galois group AK of an imaginary quadratic number field K look like, as a topological group?(2)What does the adelic point group of an elliptic curve over Q look like, as a topological group?For the first question, the focus on abelian Galois groups provides us with class field theory as a tool to analyze AK . The older work in this area, which goes back to Kubota and Onabe, provides a description of the Pontryagin dual of AK in terms of infinite families, at each prime p, of so called Ulm invariants and is very indirect. Our direct class field theoretic approach shows that AK contains a subgroup UK of finite index isomorphic to the unit group Oˆ∗ of the profinite completion Oˆ of the ring of integers of K, and provides a completely explicit description of the topological group UK that is almost independent of the imaginary quadratic field K. More precisely, for all imaginary quadratic number fields different from Q(i) and Q(√−2), we have UK ∼= U = Zˆ2 × Y Z/nZ. (n=1)The exceptional nature of Q(√−2) was missed by Kubota and Onabe, and their theorems need to be corrected in this respect.Passing from the ‘universal’ subgroup UK to AK amounts to a group extension problem for adelic groups that may be ‘solved’ by passing to a suitable quotient extension involving the maximal Zˆ-free quotientUK/TK of UK . By ‘solved’ we mean that for each K that is sufficiently small to allow explicit class group computations for K, we obtain a practical algorithm to compute the splitting behavior of the extension. In case the quotient extension is totally non-split, the conclusion is that AK is isomorphic as a topological group to the universal group U . Conversely, any splitting of the p-part of the quotient extension at an odd prime p leads to groups AK that are not isomorphic to U . For the prime 2, the situation is special, but our control of it is much greater as a result of the wealth of theorems on 2-parts of quadratic class groups.Based on numerical experimentation, we have gained a basic under- standing of the distribution of isomorphism types of AK for varying K, and this leads to challenging conjectures such as “100% of all imagi- nary quadratic fields of prime class number have AK isomorphic to the universal group U ”.In the case of our second question, which occurs implicitly in [?, Section 9, Question 1] with a view towards recovering a number field K from the adelic point group E(AK ) of a suitable elliptic curve over K, we can directly apply the standard tools for elliptic curves over number fields in a method that follows the lines of the determination of the structure of Oˆ∗ we encountered for our first question.It turns out that, for the case K = Q that is treated in Chapter 4, the adelic point group of ‘almost all’ elliptic curves over Q is isomorphic to a universal groupE = R/Z × Zˆ × Y Z/nZ (n=1)that is somewhat similar in nature to U . The reason for the universality of adelic point groups of elliptic curves lies in the tendency of elliptic curves to have Galois representations on their group of Q-valued torsion points that are very close to being maximal. For K = Q, maximality of the Galois representation of an elliptic curve E means that E is a so-called Serre-curve, and it has been proved recently by Nathan Jones [?] that ‘almost all’ elliptic curves over Q are of this nature. In fact, universality of E(AK ) requires much less than maximality of the Galois representation, and the result is that it actually requires some effort to construct families of elliptic curves with non-universal adelic point groups. We provide an example at the end of Chapter 4.
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Submitted on : Friday, September 23, 2016 - 10:12:13 AM
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Athanasios Angelakis. Universal Adelic Groups for Imaginary Quadratic Number Fields and Elliptic Curves. Group Theory [math.GR]. Université de Bordeaux; Universiteit Leiden (Leyde, Pays-Bas), 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015BORD0180⟩. ⟨tel-01359692⟩



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