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Variabilité d'origine génétique et épigénétique de la pharmacodynamie des inhibiteurs de la calcineurine en transplantation rénale

Abstract : Inter-individual genetic variation might account for diverse efficacy and toxicity of calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporin and tacrolimus). In particular, some variants located within genes coding for proteins of the calcineurin pathway can explain part of this variability. In this manuscript, a panel of candidate genes was selected based on bibliographic review and tested in a pharmacogenetics study encompassing 381 renal transplants followed for one year after surgery. None of these candidates was associated with the acute rejection or serious infection risks. Furthermore, the pharmacodynamic variability of these drugs was also investigated, exploring the use of epigenomics profiling as proximal readout of the calcineurin inhibition treatment. In particular, we investigated the impact of drug exposure on DNA methylation in two experimental models. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (MeDIP-seq, Ion Proton technology) was deployed in JURKAT cell line, used as in vitro model, and in CD4 T lymphocytes isolated from mice treated with either cyclosporin or tacrolimus for three months. After sequencing, the differentiated methylated regions caused by drug exposure were analyzed. Bioinformatics analyses were performed using SAMtools (Li et al., 2009), BEDtools (Quinlan and Hall, 2010), MACS2 (Zhang et al., 2008) and Diffbind (Stark and Brown, 2011 - Bioconductor). Overall, the genome-wide analysis revealed only 24 regions with a differentiated enrichment in DNA methylation after three month-tacrolimus treatment, indicating a targeted effect of these treatments on a subset of key genes. Of note, CALM2 promoter, coding for the calmodulin isoform 2 protein, showed significant hypermethylation in tacrolimus-treated mice. These preliminary results corroborate the interest in using DNA methylation as promising approach to identify candidate biomarkers for therapeutic drug monitoring in calcineurin inhibitor treatments.
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Lucie Pouche. Variabilité d'origine génétique et épigénétique de la pharmacodynamie des inhibiteurs de la calcineurine en transplantation rénale. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Limoges, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LIMO0017⟩. ⟨tel-01359496⟩

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