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Vers une quantification des secteurs d’émission de CO2 de l’agglomération parisienne

Abstract : In response to changing air quality and climate, there is a growing interest in quantifying emissions ofatmospheric pollutants and greenhouse gases from urban areas. Currently emission inventories provide the most detailed description of anthropogenic emissions. However, their estimates rely on the combination of activity proxies and emission factors for individual source sectors calibrated for benchmarck situations that may significantly differ from real conditions. Paris, the third largest megacity in Europe, can be considered in this context. We used methods based on in situ measurements in this region to characterise the urban signal and independently assess the latest estimates from the regional inventory. The methods we developed rely on the joint analysis of atmospheric tracers (CO, NOx, VOCs) which are co-emitted with CO2 during incomplete combustion processes in ratios that are characteristic of each emission sector. These ratios between co-emitted species are thus an appropriate tool to study the urban signal. During this PhD, we developed several methods to evaluate the ratios using measurements for a major CO2 emission source in Paris (road traffic) or for measurements acquired in the urban atmosphere. We revealed spatial and seasonal variabilities in these ratios and the main conclusions were not necessarily in complete accordance with the ones from inventories or previous studies. We also compared our results to the estimates provided by the latest regional inventory, which appears to overestimate them in most cases. Finally, we combined the results obtained with the multi-species analysis to the ones provided by isotopic analyses (which are often used as a reference to study anthropogenic emissions). According to the analyses of these measurements, CO2 emissions in Paris came mostly from combustion of fossil fuels (81 %) and the use of each fossil fuel is almost equally distributed. Finally, the satisfactory agreement found between the two approaches (multi-species and isotopic one) confirmed their relevancefor the analysis of mean urban signals.
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Lamia Ammoura. Vers une quantification des secteurs d’émission de CO2 de l’agglomération parisienne. Milieux et Changements globaux. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015SACLV035⟩. ⟨tel-01359453⟩

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