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Application d'algorithmes prédictifs à l'identification de niches écoculturelles des populations du passé : approche ethnoarchéologique

Abstract : The geographic distribution of human populations is the result of both historical contingency and environmental factors. This study identifies culture-environment relations for well-documented present-day and historic populations in order to evaluate whether the same phenomena operated inprehistoric contexts, which are only known from archaeological sites. After reviewing the different concepts used to describe the ecological space occupied by a species (or specific population), it is shown that the niche concept is well-suited for identifying and measuring environmental factors that can influence the distribution of a culture at a particular place and time. In order to better understand the potential distributions of present and past cultures, this study employs the method known aseco-cultural niche modeling (ECNM). ECNM uses predictive algorithms along with occurrence and environmental data in order to examine the possible influences of environmental factors on cultural trajectories. The results presented here are derived from an optimized ECNM approach that permits one to obtain high-resolution environmental data, and that also combines niche predictions by taking into account the performance of the various employed predictive algorithms.The effectiveness of this approach is ensured by the use of reliable occurrence data for both the present-day and historic case studies. Finally, statistical evaluations of multiple contemporaneous niches, as well as successive ones across multiple climatic phases, allow them to be placed in ecological space and examined with respect to cultural diversity, ecological risk, competition, and evolutionary and population dynamics.
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Nicolas Antunes. Application d'algorithmes prédictifs à l'identification de niches écoculturelles des populations du passé : approche ethnoarchéologique. Archéologie et Préhistoire. Université de Bordeaux, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015BORD0173⟩. ⟨tel-01359190⟩

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