Caractérisation de la compacité du ballast ferroviaire par méthodes sismiques

Abstract : Railways, most of them built for over one hundred years, are old structures. They require increasing maintenance, a major technical and economic challenge for the coming years. Until the opening of markets to competition, the implementation of new railroads was empirically controlled by SNCF. Because of the application of the European directive 91/440/10, the historical operator turns from a goal of means to a goal of results. This calls for non-destructive highly efficient auscultation methods to check the right compaction of the ballast. However, existing methods for obtain ballast compaction assessment during implementation stage are surface-limited and difficult to apply; they do not respond to the issue of the doubling of track maintenance. Thus the study of the propagation waves in the ballast is an alternative to these methods and may allow to answer these requirements. The ballast is a discontinuous medium, complex for the understanding of waves, as they propagate in a force link. Modelling ballast is especially difficult because of the large size of its components and because it should be treated as a discrete environment, not following the elastic mechanics of continuous media. Given the difficulty to model this discrete layer, it is necessary to undertake the problem with experimentation. The aim of this thesis is to focus on the use of the propagation of vibration waves in the railroad structure. This work is organized as follows : the first chapter details the structure of the railroad and the ballast as a granular material, and the existing assessment methods for railroad. The second chapter describes the different types of vibration waves that propagate, first, in an elastic homogeneous medium, second in the ballast, and presents the answer of ballast through the answer of the sleeper. The two previous chapters, derived from the state of the art, allow to define in chapter three the experiments implemented as part of this work on a full scale railroad structure : realization, instrumentation, results. This chapter especially endeavours to describe the waves celerity, their damping in ballast and the measured dispersion curves. Finally, the propagation of a vibration wave in the ballast is studied in chapter four and a numerical simulation, compares with a disctete model and a continuous model with experimental results
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Delphine Forissier. Caractérisation de la compacité du ballast ferroviaire par méthodes sismiques. Géotechnique. Université Paris-Est, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PESC1184⟩. ⟨tel-01358369⟩

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