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Theses

Simulation stochastique des précipitations à fine échelle : application à l'observation en milieu urbain

Abstract : Precipitations are highly variable across a wide range of both spatial and temporal scales. This variability is a major source of uncertainty for the measurement and modeling, also for the simulation and prediction. Moreover, rainfall is an extremely intermittent process with multiple scale invariance regimes. The rain-field generator developed during the thesis is based on the fine-scale statistic modeling of rain by the mean of its heterogeneity and intermittency. The modeling originality partially rest on the analysis of fine-scale disdrometer data. This model differs from other existing models whose resolution is roughly a minute or even an hour or a day. It provides simulations with realistic properties across a wide range ofscales. This simulator produces time series with statistical characteristics almost identical to the observations both at the 15s resolution and, after degradation, at hourly or daily resolutions. The multi-scale properties of our simulator are obtained through a hybrid approach that relies on a fine scale simulation of rain events using a multifractal generator associated with a rain support simulation based on a Poissonian-type hypothesis. A final re-normalization step of the rain rate is added in order to adapt the generator to the relevant climate area. The simulator allows the generation of 2D water-sheets. The methodology developed in the first part is extended to the 2 Dimension case. The multi-scale 2D stochastic simulator thus developed can reproduce geostatistical and topological characteristics at the spatial resolution of 1x1 km2.This generator is used in the scope of the feasability study of a new observation system for urban area. The principle of this system is based on the opportunistic use of attenuation measurements provided by geostationary TV satellites which radio waves lay in the 10.7 to 12.7 GHz bandwidth. More specifically it is assumed that the SAT-TV reception terminals installed in private homes are able to measure such attenuations. At this stage of the study we do not have such observations. The study is therefore based on rainfall maps generated using the 2D generator in addition to a hypothetical sensor network. The considered observation system will allow to estimate precipitation fields (30 x 30 km2) with a spatial resolution of 0.5x0.5 km2.
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  • HAL Id : tel-01357968, version 1

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Nawal Akrour. Simulation stochastique des précipitations à fine échelle : application à l'observation en milieu urbain. Météorologie. Université Paris-Saclay, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015SACLV014⟩. ⟨tel-01357968⟩

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