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Quels sont les facteurs naturels et humains conduisant au statut invasif ? Le cas de l'ajonc (Ulex europaeus) sur l'île de La Réunion

Abstract : For over twenty years, invasive species have been raised to the rank of major public problems because of their effects on the environment, economy and health. The main objective of this PhD thesis is to identify natural and human factors leading to attribute over time the public status of invasive species to certain species and in certain contexts, through the case of gorse (Ulex europaeus) on the island of La Réunion (Indian Ocean). This work have a three-part structure: (i) a comparison of biological characteristics of gorse between La Reunion, where it is called / declared invasive, and France, its native range, (ii) a historical analysis of its geographic expansion through natural and human factors, (iii) a study of the construction of public status attributed to gorse since its introduction on the island. The results showed a biological evolution between gorse populations of France and La Reunion related to germination rate and velocity, and seed dispersal. Coupled with a faster growth of individuals previously demonstrated, this suggest that colonization capacities of gorse are more important in the invasive region than in its native region. These capacities have favoured its geographic expansion in agricultural and natural environments, in interaction with the uses, agricultural practices and land uses, which themselves result from the overall socio-economic context from European scale to family farming scale. The construction and publicizing of the invasive status of gorse on this island is a combination between these ecological features and sociological elements: a new ecological vision of the world on a global scale, and, on a regional scale, social interactions between stakeholders about the management of protected natural areas. These results demonstrate one more time the importance of interdisciplinary approaches to understand the fundamentally hybrid object, product of nature and culture.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, August 30, 2016 - 4:39:23 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, March 31, 2020 - 3:22:14 PM


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Nathalie Udo. Quels sont les facteurs naturels et humains conduisant au statut invasif ? Le cas de l'ajonc (Ulex europaeus) sur l'île de La Réunion. Environnement et Société. Université Rennes 1, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016REN1S004⟩. ⟨tel-01357947⟩



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