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Analyse temporelle de la dynamique de communautés végétales à l'aide de modèles individus-centrés

Abstract : Plant communities are complex systems in which multiple species differing by their functional attributes interact with their environment and with each other. Because of the number and the diversity of these interactions the mechanisms that drive the dynamics of theses communities are still poorly understood. Modelling approaches enable to link in a mechanistic fashion the process driving individual plant or population dynamics to the resulting community dynamics. This PhD thesis aims at developing such approaches and to use them to investigate the mechanisms underlying community dynamics. We therefore developed two modelling approaches. The first one is based on a stochastic modelling framework allowing to link the population dynamics to the community dynamics whilst taking account of intra- and interspecific interactions as well as environmental and demographic variations. This approach is easily applicable to real systems and enables to describe the properties of plant population through a small number of demographic parameters. However our work suggests that there is no simple relationship between these parameters and plant functional traits, while they are known to drive their response to extrinsic factors. The second approach has been developed to overcome this limitation and rely on the individual-based model Nemossos that explicitly describes the link between plant functioning and community dynamics. In order to ensure that Nemossos has a large application potential, a strong emphasis has been placed on the tradeoff between realism and parametrization cost. Nemossos has then been successfully parameterized from trait values found in the literature, its realism has been demonstrated and it has been used to investigate the importance of temporal environmental variability for the coexistence of functionally differing species. The complementarity of the two approaches allows us to explore various fundamental questions of community ecology including the impact of competitive interactions on community dynamics, the effect of environmental filtering on their functional composition, or the mechanisms favoring the coexistence of plant species. In this work, the two approaches have been used separately but their coupling might offer interesting perspectives such as the investigation of the relationships between plant functioning and population dynamics. Moreover each of the approaches might be used to run various simulation experiments likely to improve our understanding of mechanisms underlying community dynamics.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01356076
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Submitted on : Wednesday, August 24, 2016 - 5:08:08 PM
Last modification on : Friday, May 6, 2022 - 3:33:33 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01356076, version 1
  • IRSTEA : PUB00048118

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Théophile Lohier. Analyse temporelle de la dynamique de communautés végétales à l'aide de modèles individus-centrés. Autre [cs.OH]. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016CLF22683⟩. ⟨tel-01356076⟩

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