Graphics Recognition using Spatial Relations and Shape Analysis

K.C. Santosh 1
1 QGAR - Querying Graphics through Analysis and Recognition
LORIA - NLPKD - Department of Natural Language Processing & Knowledge Discovery
Abstract : In the current state-of-the-art, symbol recognition usually means recognising isolated symbols. However, isolated symbol recognition methods are not always suitable for solving real-world problems. In case of composite documents that contain textual and graphical elements, one needs to be able to extract and formalise the links that exist between the images and the surrounding text, in order to exploit the information embedded in those documents. Related to this context, we first introduce a method for graphics recognition based on dynamic programming matching of the Radon features. This method allows to exploit the Radon Transform property to include both boundary and internal structure of shapes without compressing the pattern representation into a single vector that may miss information. The method outperforms all major set of state-of-the-art of shape descriptors but remains mainly suited for isolated symbol recognition only. We therefore integrate it in a completely new approach for symbol recognition based on the spatio-structural description of a ‘vocabulary’ of extracted visual primitives. The method is based on spatial relations between pairs of labelled vocabulary types (some of which can be characterised with the previously mentioned descriptor), which are further used as a basis for building an attributed relational graph (ARG) to describe symbols. Thanks to our labelling of attribute types, we avoid the general NP-hard graph matching problem. We provide a comprehensive comparison with other spatial relation models as well as state-of-the-art approaches for graphics recognition and prove that our approach effectively combines structural and statistical descriptors together and outperforms them significantly. In the final part of this thesis, we present a Bag-Of-Features (BOFs) approach using spatial relations where every possible pair of individual visual primitives is indexed by its topological configuration and the visual type of its components. This provides a way to retrieve isolated symbols as well as significant known parts of symbols by applying either an isolated symbol as a query or a collection of relations be- tween the important visual primitives. Eventually, it opens perspectives towards natural language based symbol recognition process.
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K.C. Santosh. Graphics Recognition using Spatial Relations and Shape Analysis. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition [cs.CV]. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2011. English. ⟨NNT : 2011INPL096N⟩. ⟨tel-01749508v2⟩

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