Le processus de domiciliation des punaises hématophages vectrices de la maladie de Chagas : apport de l’étude du transcriptome chimiosensoriel

Abstract : In Latin America, the bloodsucking bugs (Triatominae, Hemiptera, Reduviidae) are vectors of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes Chagas disease. More than five million people are infected. Even if chemical control campaigns are effective against vectors, the disease persists due to the recolonization of human habitations by vectors from natural habitats. Some species have the capacity to adapt to anthroposystems (domiciliation process), while other related species do not. Understanding this capacity to adapt is crucial from an epidemiological perspective to target species at risk to humans. The capacity to adapt to a new habitat could be linked to changes in the repertoire of chemosensory system genes, particularly for odorant binding proteins (OBP) and chemosensory proteins (CSP), which are important proteins to detect various odor stimuli. This study is based on the chemosensory system of Triatominae to document the adaptation process and then the domiciliation of the vectors. Transcriptomic data obtained by high-throughput sequencing were used to annotate and list the chemosensory genes and also to compare their expression in bloodsucking bugs from different habitats. The relationship between changes in these genes in different Triatominae species and their ability to adapt to a new habitat was evaluated.The species T. brasiliensis, which is in the process of domiciliation in Brazil with sylvatic, peridomiciliary and domiciliary populations, and various species of the genus Rhodnius from diverse habitats were studied, especially the two sibling species R. robustus, sylvatic in the Amazonia and R. prolixus mostly domiciliary throughout its geographical range.In the absence of a reference genome for T. brasiliensis, a reference transcriptome via de novo assembly (data 454 and Illumina) was achieved. The reference transcriptomes for 10 Rhodnius species were also established using the de novo assembly method. A genome reference based method on R. prolixus was also used to assemble the transcriptome of the two species R. prolixus and R. robustus. In the different species of the Triatominae studied, the chemosensory gene repertoire showed a high diversity and genic expansions compared to that of others Paraneoptera, which could reflect adaptive process. Furthermore, a positive correlation was shown between the number of OBP genes in Rhodnius species and their domiciliation ability, suggesting that this gene family is involved in the adaptation to anthropogenic environment.The differential expression analyses on the T. brasiliensis populations and the R. prolixus / R. robustus species showed that some transcripts are differentially expressed according to the environment in which the bugs have evolved, especially the chemosensory genes (OBP, CSP) and also genes involved in the circadian rhythm and foraging behavior (Takeout), in the response to environmental stress such as detoxification genes (P450, glutathione S-transferase), in resistance to climatic changes (heat-shock proteins) and in protection from the external environment (cuticular proteins).This work has helped make available to the scientific community powerful tools for studying the process of domiciliation of Chagas disease vectors (transcriptome, gene repertoire). It also revealed genes that could be involved in the adaptation and/or phenotypic plasticity in response to a change in habitat.Understanding the molecular basis of vector adaptation to human dwellings opens the potential to develop new tools to control the disease vectors, for example by disrupting chemical communication.
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Axelle Marchant. Le processus de domiciliation des punaises hématophages vectrices de la maladie de Chagas : apport de l’étude du transcriptome chimiosensoriel. Evolution [q-bio.PE]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016SACLS008⟩. ⟨tel-01350868⟩

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