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Synthèse et caractérisation de membranes hybrides pour la conduction des ions lithium, et application dans les batteries lithium-air à électrolyte aqueux

Abstract : Aqueous lithium-air batteries could be a revolution in energy storage, but the main limitation is the use of a thick glass-ceramic lithium ionic conductor to isolate the metallic lithium from the aqueous electrolyte. This makes the system more fragile, limits its cyclability and increases ohmic resistance. The aim of this work is to replace the glass-ceramic by a hybrid membrane made by electrospinning, which combines water tightness, flexibility and lithium-ions conductivity. The ionic conductivity is provided by a nanostructured solid electrolyte ceramic: both Li1,4Al0,4Ti1,6(PO4)3 (LATP) and Li0,33La0,57TiO3 (LLTO) were studied. The water tightness is ensured by a fluorinated polymer. Different powders synthesis methods are reported and compared in terms of purity, microstructure, specific surface area and electrochemical properties. Especially, the LATP microwave-assisted synthesis is reported for the first time. Sub-micrometric LATP particles were obtained in times as short as 2 min. The fabrication of hybrid membranes from suspension is then reported. In a second approach, the coupling between sol-gel chemistry and electrospinning made possible the fabrication of a self-standing lithium-conducting network, made of interconnected crystalline nanofibers. After an impregnation step, a flexible, lithium-conducting and watertight hybrid membrane is obtained. A mechanical reinforcement is observed, which is attributed to the inorganic nanofibers. This approach is exposed for both LATP and LLTO solid electrolytes. This work opens new prospects in lithium-air, lithium-sulfur and lithium-ion batteries.
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Submitted on : Thursday, July 21, 2016 - 9:28:10 AM
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Gilles Lancel. Synthèse et caractérisation de membranes hybrides pour la conduction des ions lithium, et application dans les batteries lithium-air à électrolyte aqueux. Chimie-Physique [physics.chem-ph]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PA066011⟩. ⟨tel-01347445⟩

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