L’oncoprotéine Tax du HTLV-1 et la voie NF-κB : une histoire de conjugaison : nouvelle exploration du rôle des machineries de SUMOylation et d’ubiquitinylation dans l’activation de la voie NF-κB par Tax

Abstract : The Human T-cell Leukemia Virus type I is the first human oncoretrovirus discovered. The regulatory Tax protein is the main responsible of the immortalization process of primary CD4+ T lymphocytes, the preferential target cells of HTLV-1 in vivo, which is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), a highly aggressive malignant proliferation of CD4+ T lymphocytes. The oncogenic property of Tax is mainly due to its capacity to interact with many different cellular proteins belong to several pathways which control cell proliferation and survival. Constitutive activation of the NF-κB pathway induced by Tax plays a crucial role in this oncogenic mechanism. Our laboratory, and others, demonstrated that Tax ubiquitination, notably with K63-linked ubiquitin (Ub) chains, is required for the activation of the cytoplasmic IκB kinase (IKK) complex by directly interacting with the regulatory subunit NEMO. Moreover, in previous studies, we and others describe that Tax is also conjugated to either SUMO-1 or SUMO-2/3 molecules which facilitates its interaction with the NF-κB dimers in particular structures named Tax nuclear bodies, inducing promoter activation of target genes in the nucleus. However, many questions remain concerning the exact role of each Tax post-translational modification in the NF-κB pathway activation process. In the laboratory, we recently reconsidered the importance of Tax SUMOylation, provoking a controversy in our field. So, we decided to reexamine the role of this modification on NF-κB activation. To do this, we designed a novel strategy based on the inhibition of the endogenous SUMOylation machinery by blocking or silencing Ubc9, the unique E2-conjugating enzyme involves in this process. We found that an ubiquitinated but not SUMOylated Tax protein is still able to activate a transfected, an integrated or an endogenous NF-κB promoters, demonstrating that Tax SUMOylation is not required for Tax induced NF-κB pathway activation contrary to its ubiquitination. Another interrogation concerning the formation of the Tax/NEMO/IKKα/IKKβ complex, in which Tax ubiquitination is critical. We studied the role of TRAF5 in these mechanisms because this enzyme could be a potential Ub E3-ligase of Tax, which remains unknown. Thanks to the blockage of TRAF5, we showed that this protein interacts with Tax and that TRAF5 is necessary for Tax ubiquitination, notably with K63-linked Ub chains. However, TRAF5 is not the direct E3-ligase of Tax since we demonstrated that its ligase activity is not involved in Tax conjugation to ubiquitin. We also discovered that TRAF5 induces the formation of the Tax/ IKKα/IKKβ complex but not the association between Tax and NEMO, showing a new model for the recruitment and the activation of the IKK complex by Tax. In conclusion, our results led us to propose a new light on the impact of Tax SUMOylation and ubiquitination in the NF-κB pathway activation and to figure out the different steps of this process, which is crucial for the oncogenic mechanism induced by the HTLV-1 Tax protein.
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Sabrina Pène. L’oncoprotéine Tax du HTLV-1 et la voie NF-κB : une histoire de conjugaison : nouvelle exploration du rôle des machineries de SUMOylation et d’ubiquitinylation dans l’activation de la voie NF-κB par Tax. Virologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015USPCB056⟩. ⟨tel-01343887⟩

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