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Réponses fonctionnelles des écosystèmes estuariens dans le contexte du changement global : le cas du réseau trophique de l'estuaire de la Gironde

Abstract : The philosophical and technical changes associated with the emergence of our "modern" civilizationcaused numbers of physical, chemical and biological changes those led to changes in the functioning of"Nature". The necessity to understand this functioning has led to question the reconfiguration process ofthe various eco-sociosystems’ components and features under the influence of Global Change. TheGironde estuary, one of the largest estuaries in Western Europe, has shown since three decades, signsof this Global Change. In this context, this study highlights the functional trajectory of this estuarineecosystem during the last thirty years. Three aspects of its functioning are described, analyzed anddiscussed. First, the study of the inter-annual fish community evolution highlighted three periods withdistinct functioning. The exploration of the seasonal patterns of the fish and zooplankton dynamicsduring each period shows phenological changes able to cause, in some cases, prey-predator mismatch.This leads to question the stability of trophic interactions and the trophic capacity of the ecosystem forfish. Finally, within each of these three periods, the estuarine food web was modeled within a holisticframework. The comparison of the functional properties of each model highlighted an increase in thestress of the Gironde estuary and questioned the sustainability of its nursery function for Bay of Biscaymarine stocks. Four forecasting scenarios summarize conclusions of this study and let see possiblefutures of this ecosystem.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01342775
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Submitted on : Wednesday, July 6, 2016 - 4:40:07 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, September 7, 2021 - 3:54:09 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Friday, October 7, 2016 - 2:00:01 PM

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CHEVILLOT_XAVIER_2016.pdf
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  • HAL Id : tel-01342775, version 1
  • IRSTEA : PUB00051243

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Xavier Chevillot. Réponses fonctionnelles des écosystèmes estuariens dans le contexte du changement global : le cas du réseau trophique de l'estuaire de la Gironde. Sciences agricoles. Université de Bordeaux, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016BORD0030⟩. ⟨tel-01342775⟩

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