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Caractérisation de pigments sur des peintures de chevalet par méthodes optiques non-invasives

Abstract : Various techniques are currently used to characterize pigments on easel paintings. The present study focuses on optical techniques, especially spectrophotometry, hyperspectral imaging, photography and infrared spectrometry. These techniques are non-invasive, without contact, non-destructive and request no sampling.A technical comparison of the different devices is given before testing the efficiency of the commonly used methods for pigment characterization – pigment identification (pure or in a mixture) and pigment quantification in mixtures. With respect to the pigments themselves, the pre-18th century period was chosen in particular, as the number of pigments was limited and the mixtures quite simple.Analysis of cultural heritage by hyperspectral imaging has been developing fast over the past few years. This technique generates large amounts of data that are complex to process. A simplified method was developed to process the data. An evolutionary approach was chosen to extract image data and this methodology used takes its roots in false color traditional photography. Indeed, three false-color composites were generated by choosing a composition of spectral bands in order to maximize the spectral differences between the pigments of a same color category (blue, red, yellow or green).In a first step, optical techniques were tested on pigment mock-ups (pure or mixed). The variable composite methodology was applied on paintings by Eustache Le Sueur, a French painter from the 17th century. Finally the results were compared to those achieved by classical analytical tools currently used for cultural heritage such as X-ray fluorescence and optical microscopy. The results are quite consistent and very promising in favor of a more regular use of the hyperspectral imaging method.
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Anita Hayem. Caractérisation de pigments sur des peintures de chevalet par méthodes optiques non-invasives. Matériaux. Université de Cergy Pontoise, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015CERG0770⟩. ⟨tel-01342329⟩

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