Le jeu du clown dans la Colombie contemporaine : la renaissance du clown, un acteur social et politique et le rire du spectateur de résistance et de liberté

Abstract : Clown acting in contemporary Colombia is developing. Even though the figure of clowns has always being present in society, regardless of its forms through history, we are now witnessing the rebirth of the art of clowning in Colombia in the last decade. The art of clowning becomes an enhancement possibility of comic and poetic language of the artist in the current Colombian society, conferring the clown actor a social and political role, and allowing the spectator to live a form of resistance and freedom from their daily violent reality.The historical perspective of the circus as modern artistic language allows understanding how the clown is built up and developed through the XIX and XX centuries until the point of becoming an independent art with its foray into theater and theater schools. This perspective aims to provide the theoretical foundations of the birth and evolution of the circus and the clown in the circus since the time of pre-Hispanic America until contemporary Colombia. The historical perspective points out that the existence of comic and clownesque characters in the Pre-Columbian culture and during the colonization era can be recorded even before the clowns’ arrival to the modern circus after the XVIII century. The history of Latin America popular celebrations and the itinerant and comic characters are developed at the same time as the spectacular religious forms of the Spanish ideology. The European and American circuses arrived amid an atmosphere of resistance and, later, of independence. The history of the circus in Latin America begins to be written.The Latin American economic model, the recent cultural industry and the lack of schools for circus training mark the circus evolution as a social institution which, through its discipline and techniques, looks to form young people and children that are in violence situations. On the other hand, the theater is subjected to divisions between tradition and the emergence of modern ideologies on actor’s training until the consolidation of the artistic method of collective creation. The traditional circus clown becomes a kind of stereotype with the clownesque duos on T.V., the clowns in the streets and restaurants, and the beggars dressed up as clowns.This study approaches the semiotic elements of the new clowns’ figure as an independent art encouraged by French Jacques Lecoq’s pedagogy, spread all around the world with an important impact in Latin America, where this pedagogy meets the collective creation based on improvisation. It arrives through international theater festivals, where artists and spectators have access to the panorama of the clown art around the world, by means of courses and shows renewing the clown’s marginalization phenomenon through an artistic and social status change. The established practice of collective creation, the collective work and the involvement of theater in social and political transformation of the country, meet the language of the new clowns to give shape to absolutely strong and original collective clownesque creations.We will focus on the function performed by the contemporary clowns in the current Colombian society resulting from a large period of crisis marked by confrontations and successive waves of violence. Humor, as a particular feature of the culture and becoming an unquestionable way of facing a painful reality, meets the clown, who makes possible to recover the sacred value of the shaman, bobo, buffoons and mad characters of history. Thus, recognizing the foray of clown language into different fields (the hospital, the humanitarian and the social ones) in Colombia, it is possible to accept that the spectator lives a form of freedom through the communication established with the clown in the laughing.
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Ana Milena Velasquez Angel. Le jeu du clown dans la Colombie contemporaine : la renaissance du clown, un acteur social et politique et le rire du spectateur de résistance et de liberté. Musique, musicologie et arts de la scène. Université de la Sorbonne nouvelle - Paris III, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PA030005⟩. ⟨tel-01335051⟩

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