Personnage collectif, personnage individuel : Tableau d'un parcours dialectique (1830-1930)

Abstract : Collective Character, Individual Character: Scenes of a Dialectical Journey (1830-1930) At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the introduction of the people into the social and artistic scene marks the end of the "era of the individual". Henceforth, it is the question of totality that is affirmed in all fields and that imposes in the dramatic field a new relation between individual and collective characters. The latter are for Goethe, Baudelaire and Wagner the occasion for a dialectic tension susceptible to generate new theatrical forms. It will be the Naturalist School (from Zola to Hauptmann) which favours more openly this articulation in making the milieu itself an actor. The antithesis of the first movement is instigated by symbolism, which claims the same desire to go past conventions, but through the invention of character-myths and of polymorphous choralités exiled from any socio-historical reality. While Maeterlinck and Claudel show the limits of this model, other persuasions (Mallarmé) conceive the essence of theatre as one of a dialogue between the hero and the crowd against the backdrop of a social ritual in the process of transformation. With Italian futurism and Apollinaire this ritualism reaches its point of incandescence and claims a fully assumed fusion of the individual and the collective. Far from the these provocative syntheses, Pirandello, Ibsen and the expressionists will devote themselves to throwing light on the now opressive role of the collective on the individual character. Taking note of this reversal of hierarchical and dialectical relations in drama, does not Brecht’s theatre offer the alternative of a more dynamique and less deadly collusion between individual and collective characters?
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Filippo Bruschi. Personnage collectif, personnage individuel : Tableau d'un parcours dialectique (1830-1930). Musique, musicologie et arts de la scène. Université de la Sorbonne nouvelle - Paris III; Università degli studi (Florence, Italie), 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011PA030047⟩. ⟨tel-01334783⟩

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