Réponses de plusieurs espèces de mélèzes et du sapin de Douglas aux éléments traces : Étude de mécanismes de tolérance et des capacités d'accumulation

Abstract : Given the toxicity of trace elements (TE) in the environment, plants developed varions strategies used currently for phytoremediation. Trees appear more efficient than herbaceous species for phytoextraction as they have a larger biomass and a deeper root system. The work was thus performed on woody species widespread in Limousin region, particularly conifers: Douglas fir, hybrid larch and its two parents, European larch and Japanese larch. Several culture models were used to allow, through complementary approaches, a better understanding of the response of these conifers to TE: in vitro grown plantlets and seedlings or 2-year-old trees grown in greenhouse. Conifers were exposed to a single TE, cadmium (Cd), or to several TE (As, Pb, Sb) present in soils collected from two former mining sites. Among investigated species, results showed that Douglas exhibited the highest rate of Cd accumulation. However, the amount stored in aboveground biomass remained low compared to other tree species already used in phytoextraction. Furthermore, the chemical characterization of cell wall pectins highlighted quantitative and qualitative modifications suggesting a Cd exclusion process. At the intracellular level, results showed that polyamines and thiol-rich oligopeptides did not appear to be involved in Cd compartmentation. However, a proline accumulation was observed in response to Cd and other TE, suggesting an involvement of proline as antioxidant molecule and / or TE scavenger. Overall, results highlighted the need to optimize conifer growth and soil TE phytoavailability before to propose these conifers, particularly Douglas, for the phytoextraction of TE.
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Amandine Bonet. Réponses de plusieurs espèces de mélèzes et du sapin de Douglas aux éléments traces : Étude de mécanismes de tolérance et des capacités d'accumulation. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Limoges, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LIMO0018⟩. ⟨tel-01331016⟩

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