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Evaluation des politiques publiques de santé : une analyse économique appliquée au Cameroun

Abstract : In Cameroon, the sequence of reforms in the health sector has reinforced an ideological wavering between two opposing currents: a socio-universal that promotes equity, and a neoliberal, which militates for greater economic efficiency of existing systems. Articulating two concerns which are, the worsening of health inequalities as consequence of policy choices made on the efficacy of services without taking into account factors that support the demand, and the form of organization of the health system arising from an imperfect translation of major international principles, this thesis aims to contributing to a critical reflection on the process, the implementation and the results produced by these health policies. To determine Cameroonian specificity, we inscribe them in a triple theoretical field. The neo-institutionalist approach, mobilize to grasp the importance of the economic history and its influence on the evolution of the health system, which allows understanding the conditions for policy change. The “referentials” approach to policy analysis in order to apprehend the foundations of the new public policy, including the understanding of how interests and ideas are formatted by institutions. An effort to illuminate the policy game is undertaken to appraise the mediation of political entrepreneurs, thereby testing empirically the “top-down hypothesis”. Finally, the theories of justice help to argue for the existence of an imbalance between health supply and demand which undermines health outcomes, and reinforces the conflict efficacy versus equity. Indeed, our work aims to provide some answers to three main questions: (i) Why (triggers) and how (dynamic) health public policies are influenced in their construction and implementation by economic policies? (ii) What are the outcomes of induced changes by the global referential (macroeconomic framework) on sectoral referential that requires a more equitable distribution and access to health services? (iii) What lessons can we learn from the knowledge of the interrelationships between the dynamics of poverty reduction and the persistence of inaccessibility to health care in order to improve the evaluation of public policies? From a number of quantitative and qualitative indicators, the robustness of the new policy is questioned following prospects regarding health distribution and accessibility. Therefore, we emphasize the difficulty of the public policy to achieve satisfactory results both in terms of efficacy or equity due to the institutional and organizational system in which it is designed and implemented. Three epistemic communities acting on a nonstructural basis are identified and analyzed through a robust qualitative material that enables us to grasp the existence of a paradigmatic conflict emerged from how different groups are positioning themselves and interpret reality in order to put in coherence the sectorial referential and the global market-based one which appears to be rather spontaneous and mandatory. Statistical and econometric works to measure more precisely the inequalities and determinants of access and use of health services by the population supports the idea of a widening of inequalities by the health policies maintained by strong regressive mechanisms. The analysis of the determinants of occurrence of catastrophic health expenditures also confirms this. We mobilize thereafter an additional material to assess the allocative efficiency and efficacy of public spending on health as well as their impact on the use of services and benefits revealed from their use.
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Submitted on : Monday, June 13, 2016 - 9:03:27 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01330770, version 1



Sylvain F. Nkwenkeu. Evaluation des politiques publiques de santé : une analyse économique appliquée au Cameroun. Economies et finances. Université de Grenoble, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014GRENE006⟩. ⟨tel-01330770⟩



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