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Interactions micro-organismes - bois et impact sur les propriétés physico-chimiques du vin : fermentation malolactique par le biofilm de Oenococcus oeni

Abstract : Malolactic fermentation improves wine quality, mainly by decreasing acidity. It is carried out by lactic acid bacteria, mainly Oenococcus oeni. This species is favored for its efficiency and its organoleptic outcome. O. oeni ability to withstand wine stress and to keep its fermentation activity is a subject of major interest.Samples of oak showed that O. oeni adheres to wood and is able to persist for several months in wine. However, in the majority of natural habitats, microorganisms grow attached to a surface, within a structured ecosystem called biofilm. In this form of life, cells benefit from an increased stress resistance.These two properties, adherence to a surface and stress resistance, were studied for O. oeni. Observations by scanning electron microscopy have highlighted biofilm formation by O. oeni. Then, we evaluated the wine stress resilience of O. oeni biofilm. Biofilm is a growing interest in food and biotechnology industries, due to the conservation of its metabolic activity in stressful environment. Therefore, malolactic fermentation with an O. oeni biofilm was monitored in wine. Finally, the influence of O. oeni biofilm on transfers of aromatic compounds between wood and wine was studied.This study is the first characterization of O. oeni biofilm, its wine stress resistance and its fermentation potential.
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Submitted on : Thursday, June 9, 2016 - 1:01:11 AM
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Alexandre Bastard. Interactions micro-organismes - bois et impact sur les propriétés physico-chimiques du vin : fermentation malolactique par le biofilm de Oenococcus oeni. Ingénierie des aliments. Université de Bourgogne, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015DIJOS069⟩. ⟨tel-01329294⟩

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