Les vésicules extracellulaires comme vecteurs de macromolécules bioactives : modèle du transporteur ABCC7 (CFTR) et application à la biothérapie de la mucoviscidose

Abstract : Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease in which its prognosis depends on the lung damage. It is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR), resulting in a dysfunctional CFTR protein normally located at the plasma membrane of epithelial cells. This thesis is a study of a novel therapeutic approach to use extracellular vesicles (EVs), microvesicles and exosomes, as transfer vectors for CFTR mRNA and protein to target cells. The proof of concept for the transfer of CFTR mRNA and protein was first done in the CHO hamster model. To validate this concept on human cells, we used human bronchial Calu-3 cells, which express the endogenous CFTR protein, and A549 lung epithelial cells transduced by the adenoviral vector Ad5-GFP-CFTR to overexpress the fusion exogenous protein GFP-CFTR. We show that EVs produced by these cells could transfer a new functionality to CF15 target cells carrying the CFTRdeltaF508 mutation and the transfer seems to be more efficient in a homologous cell system versus a heterologous system. Interestingly, the exosomes seem to be more efficient in CFTR transfer than the microvesicles. A study of the mechanism of EVs cellular uptake show that it is temperature dependent and that endocytosis and macropinocytosis are implicated. Collectively, this study demonstrates the potential application of EVs for CFTR transfer and functional correction of the genetic defect in human CF cells
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Cyrielle Vituret. Les vésicules extracellulaires comme vecteurs de macromolécules bioactives : modèle du transporteur ABCC7 (CFTR) et application à la biothérapie de la mucoviscidose. Santé. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LYO10330⟩. ⟨tel-01328179⟩

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