Investigations éco-épidémiologiques et génétiques des Lyssavirus et des Paramyxovirus chez les micromammifères du sud-ouest de l’océan Indien

Abstract : Since many decades, the wild fauna has been incriminated as an important reservoir of many zoonotic pathogens (Nipah, Hendra, Ebola, Hantaan viruses etc.) at risk for humans. Tropical and subtropical islands of the South West Indian Ocean (SWIO) are part of the 34 areas of the world recognized as "hotspot" of biodiversity. They are characterized by a strong wildlife endemism especially on Madagascar. The multi-island structure of the SWIO region, the diversity of its biotopes and its biogeographical human disparities, offer a unique opportunity to investigate "in natura" the evolutionary dynamics of infectious agents and the host-virus relationships. Our research has focused on two models of negative RNA viruses, paramyxoviruses and lyssaviruses. The first virus model allowed us to address issues related to the dynamics of viral transmission within a host community, in particular, bats and small terrestrial mammals of Madagascar and to identify the driving factors, especially bio-ecological factors associated with their hosts, affecting the dynamic of transmission and of viral diversification. The second model allowed us to describe on the islands of the SWIO, the intense circulation of bats lyssaviruses in this multi-island system which bats are endemic to this region. Overall, our investigations highlighted (i) intense viral exchanges ("host-switch") between bats, endemic terrestrial small mammals and introduced rodents from Madagascar, (ii) the role of these mammals as major viral reservoir and (iii) the key role played by Rattus rattus as viral spreader. Furthermore, we identified both the phenomenon of "host-switch" as the major macro-evolutionary mechanism among bat paramyxoviruses from Madagascar and the importance of biotic and abiotic factors in shaping the transmission dynamics and viral diversification.
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Julien Mélade. Investigations éco-épidémiologiques et génétiques des Lyssavirus et des Paramyxovirus chez les micromammifères du sud-ouest de l’océan Indien. Maladies infectieuses. Université de la Réunion, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LARE0030⟩. ⟨tel-01326944⟩

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