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Déterminants cliniques de l'hyperactivité sympathique au cours de l'insuffisance cardiaque

Abstract : Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) abnormalities contribute to the development of some cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure (HF) and stress cardiomyopathies. These abnormalities involve persistent, adverse activation of SNS in HF and episodic sympathetic activation in stress cardiomyopathies. Less is still known about the role of SNS in valvular heart diseases. Our PhD work had as a purpose to analyse, by microneurography, the activity of SNS and its modulation by physiological reflex arcs, during HF, with and without comorbidities (including anemia and kidney failure), in stress cardiomyopathies and during aortic stenosis. SNS hyperactivity participates in the initiation and progression of HF being also a prognostic marker and a therapeutic target. The fundamental mechanisms underlying the activation of SNS in HF remain uncertain. One hypothesis would include a decrease in inhibitory reflexes activity, such as peripheral arterial baroreflex and an increase in excitatory reflexes activity, such as peripheral arterial chemoreflex. With our first work we report that the increased activity of peripheral chemoreflex directly decreases the arterial baroreflex function in HF patients and that this interaction contributes to sympathetic hyperactivity. Our team had already shown that during HF, renal dysfunction and anemia contribute to the increased activity of SNS. Although renal dysfunction and anemia have been widely studied separately in HF, epidemiological data also suggest that renal impairment can coexist with anemia in HF patients in the so called "cardio-renal anemia syndrome". We demonstrated that this syndrome during HF is associated with elevated sympathetic activity mediated by both tonic peripheral chemoreflex activation and arterial baroreflex impairment.The Tako Tsubo (TTC) is a stress cardiomyopathy characterized by acute reversible left ventricular failure. The exact pathophysiology remains unknown but sympathetic hyperactivation seems to play a fundamental role. We reported by microneurography the presence of SNS hyperactivation in the subacute phase of the disease associated with impairment in arterial baroreflex.In developed countries, aortic stenosis (AS) is the most prevalent of all valvular heart diseases. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an emerging therapeutic option in symptomatic patients with severe AS at high surgical risk. AS is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We wanted to assess whether in AS sympathetic hyperactivity existed that could help to explain the poor prognosis of these patients and be the target of TAVI. We have shown that AS patients have an increased SNS activity that is associated with reduced peripheral baroreflex gain. The TAVI normalizes these parameters.On the whole this PhD work identified new mechanisms that contribute to SNS hyperactivity in heart failure, aortic stenosis and Tako Tsubo cardiomyopathy. Since SNS hyperactivity plays a critical role in heart failure, knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie it could allow identification and/or validation of new strategies for its treatment.
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Angelica Vaccaro. Déterminants cliniques de l'hyperactivité sympathique au cours de l'insuffisance cardiaque. Pharmacologie. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015TOU30087⟩. ⟨tel-01326885⟩

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