Du fonctionnement des sites funéraires aux processus de néolithisation sur le territoire français (néolithique ancien et moyen) : premiers apports de l'approche paléogénétique

Abstract : The study of ancient DNA has recently shed new light on the different Neolithic expansion waves into Europe, however no palaeogenetic data was available for first farmer groups that settled modern day France from 5600-5200 cal. BC. Here we present the first analysis of the gene pool from five Early and Middle Neolithic sites (5200-3600 cal. BC) spread across northern France that are representative of both the period’s cultural diversity and variable funerary practices. A total of 88 mitochondrial haplogroups and 63 haplotypes could be identified. At the regional scale, a clear continuity is evident between Danubian populations and the farmer groups that settled the northern half of France. However, data from the Gurgy necropolis (Yonne) south of the Paris Basin evinces admixture with Neolithic groups from the Mediterranean expansion wave as well as early admixture with descendants of hunter-gatherer groups. This latter pattern is also observable at Fleury-sur-Orne (Normandy), reinforcing the hypothesis of increasing admixture between hunter-gatherers and farmers from eastern to western Europe. More locally, our data shows a clear diversity in the funerary organization of farmer groups. At Obernai (Alsace), maternally and culturally differentiated groups seem to have successively used different sectors to bury their dead. At Gurgy, no correlation between maternal lineages and necropolis organization or funerary practices could be identified, implying the complete acculturation of individuals with diverse ancestries, at least in terms of burial practices. Finally, at Fleury-sur-Orne, a maternal continuity between individuals buried in Passy-type structures and later dolmens (collective burials) is evident, suggesting a complex social evolution of the group. Finally, the substantial mitochondrial diversity observed in all sites appears consistent with a patrilocal kinship system, including the integration of hunter-gatherer females in Early Neolithic farmer groups.
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Maïté Rivollat. Du fonctionnement des sites funéraires aux processus de néolithisation sur le territoire français (néolithique ancien et moyen) : premiers apports de l'approche paléogénétique. Archéologie et Préhistoire. Université de Bordeaux, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016BORD0045⟩. ⟨tel-01325328⟩

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