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Theses

Argumentation socioscientifique : rôle des connaissances scientifiques et techniques?

Abstract : The work presented in this thesis has two objectives: on the one hand, the development of a teaching-learning sequence of a socio-scientific issue, dedicated to argumentation and integrated to a traditional French Curriculum; and on the other, the examination of the argumentation and knowledge use (e.g. conceptual scientific knowledge and technical knowledge) and the possible link between them, when high school students in grade 11scientific curriculum (16-17 years old) choose, in the classroom, a heating system for a residence, in the context of debates on climate change. The design of a contextualized teaching-learning environment (or ecology) and means to support this environment is based on two frameworks: the « Experimental Design-based Research », a general framework for conducting research in Science education and the “Modèle d’une écologie d’une controverse socioscientifique » a specific model for the education of socio-scientific controversies. The analysis of argumentation and knowledge use (e.g. conceptual scientific knowledge and technical) is organized around the study of the structure (e.g. mobilization of rebuttals or elaborated arguments (qualifiers mobilization (s) with at least five bases)) and content (e.g. abstraction areas, themes, sources and validity) of the argument, the artifact constructed. The results indicate mobilization by students of quality arguments (rebuttals and elaborated arguments) and content of high abstraction areas, but both remain rare. Students also mobilize conceptual scientific contents and technical one throughout the sequence. However, these contents whether scientific topics, technical or mother, may be of low, medium or high abstraction areas; and drawn from handouts, prescribed curriculum or other sources. A link is established between the mobilization of rebuttals (only encountered during students ‘group discussions and during all class debate) and the mobilization of valid content with at least partial explanation. However, no link is established between the elaborated arguments mobilized during groups presentation and during the pre-test and post-test, and the content, whether scientific, technical or other; wrong or valid; with areas of low abstraction, medium or high; and drawn from handouts, prescribed curriculum or from other sources. A discussion of results is done. In addition, , a retrospective analysis of our results in light of our frames of reference, and of our research objectives, leads us among other things, to propose adjustments to the elaborated methodology and teaching-learning sequence.
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Elie Rached. Argumentation socioscientifique : rôle des connaissances scientifiques et techniques?. Education. École normale supérieure de Cachan - ENS Cachan, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015DENS0028⟩. ⟨tel-01324425⟩

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