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Méthodes pour l’étude de l’adaptation locale et application au contexte de l’adaptation aux conditions d’altitude chez la plante alpine Arabis alpina

Abstract : Local adaptation is a micro-evolutionary phenomenon, which arises when populations of the same species are exposed to contrasted environmental conditions.If this environment exert some natural selection pressure, if an adaptive potential exists among the populations and if the gene flow is sufficiently mild, populations are expected to tend toward a local adaptive optimum.In this thesis, I study the methodological means of the study of local adaptation on the one hand, and I investigate this phenomenon along an elevation gradient in the alpine plant Arabis alpina on the other hand.In the first, methodological part, I show that the genome scan methods to detect selection using genetic markers might suffer strong false positive rates when confronted to complex but realistic datasets.I then introduce a statistical method to detect markers under selection, which, contrary to existing methods, make use of both the concept of genetic differentiation (or Fst) and environmental information.This method has been developed in order to reduce its global false positive rate.Finally, I present some perspectives regarding the relationships between the relatively old ``common garden'' experiment and the new developments in molecular biology and statistics.In the second, empirical part, I introduce an analysis of the demographic characteristics of A. alpina in six natural populations. Besides providing interesting biological information on this species (low life expectancy, strongly contrasted reproduction and survival...), these analyses show that growth increase and survival decrease with the decrease of average temperature (hence with altitude).Since these analyses do not allow us to rule out hypotheses such as drift and phenotypic plasticity, I show the results of a common garden experiment which enable us to smooth phenotypic plasticity and, when combined with molecular data, enable us to rule out the hypothesis of drift.The results show the existence of an adaptive phenotypic syndrome, in which plants are smaller, are more compact, grow slower and reproduce less in cold temperature environments.Using the molecular data, I draw a list of 40 locus which might be involved in this adaptive process.In the end, I discuss these empirical findings as a whole to place them in a more general context of alpine ecology. I sum up the main methodological challenges when studying local adaptation and offer some methodological perspectives.
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Submitted on : Friday, May 27, 2016 - 9:22:08 AM
Last modification on : Tuesday, November 10, 2020 - 10:26:03 AM
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Pierre De Villemereuil. Méthodes pour l’étude de l’adaptation locale et application au contexte de l’adaptation aux conditions d’altitude chez la plante alpine Arabis alpina. Evolution [q-bio.PE]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016GREAS003⟩. ⟨tel-01322336⟩

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