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Catastrophe, société et Etat : le grand tremblement de terre de 1868 et la reconstruction des départements de la côte sud-péruvienne de 1868-1878

Abstract : This research aims to study the dual response of the state and a section of the southern Peruvian population to the catastrophe caused by the earthquake of August 13, 1868 in the departments of southern Peru. Based on seismic memory deeply rooted in that area, souvenir product of large earthquakes in the past three hundred years, this seismic event was perceived by contemporaries as the most violent of all the regional history of the southern coast of Peru. Today, seismologists also recognized as the largest magnitude and intensity occurred not only in the area but throughout Peru in the last five centuries. On the other hand, in the affected area were settled urban centers hundreds of very different scale, ranging from large cities to small towns like Arequipa just hundreds indigenous inhabitants, located in the upper parts of the mountain. Therefore, the catastrophe of 1868 is the result of the initial interaction of two factors, one frequently occurring geological event in the area directly affected diverse urban structure, vulnerable to the action of a natural phenomenon of this magnitude. Through the title I wanted to highlight all the elements involved in this research. On one hand, a situation (the catastrophe) involving two players (the society and the state), accelerated directly by a natural event (the earthquake), which occurs in a specific area (southern Peruvian departments), compared to which develops a process (reconstruction) extending for about a decade (1868-1878). The state's reaction was swift as possible to deal with the emergency and rehabilitation phase. However, the reconstruction was a period over a decade demonstrated the failings of the state as the allocation of resources to the affected area was not constant in time and quite the contrary diminished to virtually disappear in the budgetary concerns of successive governments of the 1870s. Meanwhile, the economy recovered significantly, materialized process both increased volume of agricultural production, especially wine, and domestic and international trade. Should not be overlooked that the reconstruction had to face difficulties due to the emergence of new natural hazards influenced also the difficulties to maintain an appropriate pace of recovery. Research has also identified an internationalization of the disaster, ie, the set of information in various ways (private, military and diplomatic) expanded the knowledge of the characteristics of the disaster significantly contributing to creating conditions for the organization and referral aid of different origins, although mainly Monetary to the affected area.
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  • HAL Id : tel-01321847, version 1

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Lizardo Seiner Lizárraga. Catastrophe, société et Etat : le grand tremblement de terre de 1868 et la reconstruction des départements de la côte sud-péruvienne de 1868-1878. Histoire. Université de Grenoble, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013GRENH037⟩. ⟨tel-01321847⟩

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